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ΩΣΗΕ | ΑΜΩΣ | ΜΕΙΧΑΙΑΣ | ΙΩΗΛ | ΟΒΔΕΙΟΥ | ΙΩΝΑΣ | ΝΑΟΥΜ | ΑΜΒΑΚΟΥΜ | ΣΟΦΟΝΙΑΣ | ΑΓΓΑΙΟΣ | ΖΑΧΑΡΙΑΣ | ΜΑΛΑΧΙΑΣ | ΗΣΑΙΑΣ | ΙΕΡΕΜΙΑΣ | ΒΑΡΟΥΧ | ΘΡΗΝΟΙ | ΕΠΙΣΤΟΛΗ ΙΕΡΕΜΙΟΥ | ΙΕΖΕΚΙΗΛ | ΔΑΝΙΗΛ | ΣΟΥΣΑΝΝΑ | ΒΗΛ ΚΑΙ ΔΡΑΚΟΝ | ΜΑΚΚΑΒΑΙΩΝ Α | ΜΑΚΚΑΒΑΙΩΝ Β | ΜΑΚΚΑΒΑΙΩΝ Γ | ΜΑΚΚΑΒΑΙΩΝ Δ
THE present volume
completes the manual edition of the Cambridge Septuagint.
The work was commenced in 1883;
the first volume appeared in 1887, the second in 1891.
Little is needed by way of preface to this last instalment of a long task.
The general principles upon which the edition is based were stated in the preface to the first volume, and both the earlier volumes have been accompanied by some account of the MSS. used in the preparation of the text and notes.
It remains only to add particulars relating to the volume which is now in the reader's hands.
The great Vatican MS., whose text and
order we have generally followed, ends with the Prophets.
For the Books of the Maccabees we have been compelled to look elsewhere, and since the Codex Alexandrinus is the only early Uncial which contains them all, the text of that MS. has been adopted throughout;
in the notes to these Books use has been made of the Codex Sinaiticus so far as it is available, and of the important although relatively late Codex Venetus, which has been newly collated for this purpose.
[Apart from the convenience of this arrangement, the selection is justified on the whole by the character of the A text of the Maccabees.
But the copy which the scribe of A follows was so carelessly written that it has been found necessary to admit a considerable number of corrections from the other MSS.;
and in one or two instances where all the MSS. are at fault, a conjecture has been allowed to take a provisional place in the text.
In all such cases the rejected readings are recorded in the notes.]
the Prophets it has been possible to employ, in addition to the great codices BאA, the Codex Marchalianus (Q),
the Codex rescriptus Crypto-ferratensis (Γ), and the Dublin fragments of Isaiah (O), as well as those
edited by Tischendorf (Z).
It is well known that in Daniel the text of the LXX. is preserved in one MS. only, a cursive, and not earlier than the ninth century.
Before the days of Jerome the Church had ceased to read the Septuagint of Daniel, its room having been filled by the version attributed to Theodotion.
[Hieron. praef. in Daniel.:
"illud quoque lectorem admoneo, Danielem non iuxta LXX. interpretes sed iuxta Theodotionem ecclesias legere." Cf.Apil. ad Rufin. ii.: "ecclesiae iuxta Theodotionem legunt Danielem.
Ego quid peccavi, si ecclesiarum indicium sequutus sum?"]
This is not the place to attempt an explanation of the fact, or to discuss the relation of the two versions to one another and to the original.
But since the present is an edition of 'the Old Testament in Greek according to the LXX.,' the LXX. version has been restored in Daniel to the place of honour, whilst we have placed opposite to it at each opening the version of Theodotion, which, as the Greek Daniel of the Church Bible, must always be indispensable in the study of ancient Christian literature as well as for the literary history and the criticism of the Book.
Daniel is unfortunately wanting in א;
but BAQ, together with Γ and a newly acquired Bodleian fragment (Δ) of a portion of Bel and the Dragon, supply a fair amount of uncial authority for the text of Theodotion.
The Septuagint text has been derived from Cozza's transcript of the Chigi MS.;
but it has been thought desirable to follow Tischendorfs example and to give at the foot of the page the readings of the Syro-hexaplaric version, our only other authority.
For this purpose a collation of Ceriani's photolithograph of the Syriac MS.
[A. Ceriani: Codex Syro-hexaplaris Ambrosianus photo-lithographice editus (Mediol. 1874).]
has been made by Norman McLean, Esq., Fellow of Christ's College, who has kindly superintended the passage of its readings through the Press, and has supplied the editor with a description of the MS., which will be found in the proper place.
the end of the volume the reader will find the Psalms of Solomon, a book which,
though not actually included in any known uncial MS., at one time followed the
New Testament in the Codex Alexandrinus, is to be found in several cursive MSS.
of the Sapiential Books, and has some peculiar claims to a place at the close
of the Greek Old Testament.
The text we have given is that of a Vatican MS., of which a collation has been supplied by the kindness of Dr E. Klostermann, of Kiel;
[Professor O. v. Gebhardt, who first detected this important MS. of the Psalms of Solomon, has courteously waived his right of prior publication in the interests of this edition.]
the notes in this edition contain the readings of the other MSS. of these Psalms examined by Professor Ryle and Dr M. R. James, who have generously placed their papers at the disposal of the editor for this purpose.
After the Psalms of Solomon we have printed the Canticles, as they are found at the end of the Psalter of Codex Alexandrinus, with the various readings of the Verona and Zurich MSS., the former from Bianchini's transcript, verified by a personal examination of the MS., the latter from Tischendorfs facsimile.
[See vol. ii. pp. ix.—xi.]
Some interest will be found in comparing the text of the Old Testament Canticles as they appear in MS. Psalters with that which they present in the Books from which they are severally derived.
The New Testament Canticles and the ὕμνος ἐυθινος have been allowed to retain the place which they hold in the Psalter of Codex A.
proceed to give some account of MSS. not previously described and used in the apparatus of the present volume.
at present 416 leaves of thin vellum, measuring 11¾ x 7 inches, written in
single columns of 29 lines, each line consisting of 24 to 30 letters.
The first 12 leaves, which were not part of the original MS., are occupied by
(1) an extract from the Synopsis printed among the works of St Athanasius, here attributed to Eusebius;
(2) extracts from the 'Lives of the Prophets' which appear in the editions of Epiphanius.
The Prophets follow in the first hand, and in the order of Cod. B (i.e. the order in which they are printed in the present edition).
its original form the MS. was without interlinear or marginal additions, except
a few corrections by the diorthota, and the Hexaplaric marks inserted in
Neither breathings nor accents seem to have been added by the first hand.
MS. was written in Egypt, and, in the judgement of Ceriani, not later than the
The characters are simple, firm, and free, with the exception of ε, θ, ο, c, which are narrow, after the manner of the next century;
but this peculiarity does not, as Ceriani has shewn, in the case of an Egyptian MS. require us to assume a later date.
[Ceriani, comm. p. 36;
"pro litteris ε, θ, ο, c iam initia oblongarum formarum reperire est in antiquissimis papyris ut in Iliade Musei Britannici......etiam codex Coptus Pistis Sophia, quem Hyvernat fere saec. VI. dicit, licet crassiori typo scripturae utatur, in ε, θ, ο, c, formis Marchalianis satis proximo accedit."]
history of the MS. is of much interest.
It appears to have remained in Egypt until after the 9th century, and all the additions and corrections in uncial writing are by Egyptian hands.
From Egypt it passed into South Italy, probably before the nth century, and there the patristic scholia and a few readings in the text and margin, signalised by a preliminary γρ[άφεται], seem to have been added in cent. i.
From South Italy it was carried, perhaps by some Norman or French hand, into France, where it found a home in the Abbey of St Denys, near Paris.
While in Italy the codex had received various Latin notes, chiefly renderings from the Vulgate and other elucidations of the Greek text;
and this process of annotation in Latin was carried on after its arrival in France.
In the 16th century the book passed out of the possession of the monks of St Denys and became the property first of Renatus Marchalus Boismoraeus, after whom it is still named;
[Cf- I. Curterii Procopius in Esaiam, praef. β.]
and subsequently of Cardinal Francois Rochefoucauld, to whom it belonged about AD. 1636.
The Cardinal presented it to the Jesuit College of Clermont, near Paris;
a century and a half later, when the treasures of the College were dispersed, this MS. was purchased (1785) by Pope Pius VI. for the Vatican Library, where it is still preserved.
Codex Marchalianus has been used by a succession of scholars since the
beginning of the seventeenth century, among whom were Morin and Montfaucon.
It was collated for the great work of Holmes and Parson;?, and portions of it were edited by Tischendorf in the Monumenta Sacra. [Vol. ix. pp. 227 ff. (1870).]
Dr Field used for his Hexapla (1875) all the materials for the presentation of its readings which were then available, and suggested and offered to defray a part of the cost of a photo-lithograph.
[Ceriani, p. 47:
"de hoc uiro, Field... praedicandum quod circa annum 1875 pro codicis Marchaliani editione, eius pretii peritissimus iudex, ad me scripsit se daturum italicarum libellarum quatuor millia, ut tandem codex integre ederetur qua meliori ratione fieri posset, photo-lithographia nempe, si recte memini."]
Ultimately a heliotype of the MS. was published in 1890 under the superintendence of Cozza, and a monograph upon the Codex by Dr Antonio Ceriani, which will take its place among the classical works of Biblical palaeography, was issued simultaneously by the Vatican Press.
[The volume is entitled, Prophetarum | codex Graecus Vaticanus 2125 | uetustate uarietate lectionum notationibus | unicus aeque et insignis 1 heliotypice editus ] auspice | Leone i. Pent. Max. | curante | losepho Cozza-Luzi Abate Basiliano | S. Rom. ecclesiae uicebibliothecario | accedit commentatio critica | Ant. Ceriani Ambrosianae biblioth. praefecti || Romae | e bibliotheca Vaticana | agente photographo Danasi | mdccclxxxx. The title of Ceriani's monograph runs: De codice Marchaliano | seu | Vaticano Graeco 2125 | Prophetarum | phototypica arte repraesentato | commentatio | Antonii Ceriani | bibliothe-cae Ambrosianae praefecti || Romae ex bibliotheca Vaticana | anno mdcccxc.]
return to the MS. itself.
A few corrections which are coaeval with the first hand may be recognised in the heliotype by the relative thickness of the letters as well as by their form; these are denoted in this volume by Q1.
Other corrections in minute uncial characters, written by various hands and at different periods, are placed under the common symbol Qa;
and the same symbol has been used to represent the copious marginal annotations transcribed from a Hexaplaric MS. by a hand not much later than the original scribe.
This hand has also inserted before Isaiah and Ezekiel two important notes evidently copied from the MS. which supplied the Hexaplaric additions;
[These notes, which throw much light on the history both of the MS. and of the LXX., deserve a place here.
They are as follows:
(1) μετεληφθη ο ησαϊας απο αντιγραφου | του αββα απολιναριου του κοινοβιαρχου | εν ω καθϋπετακτο ταυτα | μετεληφθη ο ησαϊας εκ των κατα τας εκδο | σεις εξαπλων αντεβληθη δε και προς | ετεπον εξαπλουν εχον την παρασημει | ωσιν ταυτηνδιορθωνται ακριβως πα | σαι αι εκδοσεις αντεβληθησαν γαρ προς τε | τραπλουν ησαϊαν ετι δε και προς εξαπλουν | προς τουτοις και τα απο της αρχης εως του | οραματος τυρου ακριβεστερον διορθωται | ευπορησαντες γαρ των μεχρι τελους του | οραματος τυρου τομων εξηγητικων | εις τον ησαϊαν ωριγενους και ακριβως | επιστησαντες τη εννοια καθ ην εξηγη | σατο εκαστην λεξιν καθως οιον τ[ε ην] | και παν αμφιβολον κατα την εκει[νου] | εννοιαν διορθωσαμεθα προς τουτοις συ | νεκριθη η των εβδομηκοντα εκδοσις | και προς τα υπο ευσεβειου εις τον ησαιαν | ειρημενα εν οις διεφωνουν της εξη | γησεως την εννοιαν ζητησαντες και | προς αυτην διορθωσαμενοι
(2) μετεληφθη δε απο αντιγραφου του | αββα απολιναριου του κοινοβιαρχου εν ω | καθυποτακτο ταυτο μετεληφθη α | πο των κατα τας εκδοσεις εξαπλων και | διορθωθη απο των ωριγενους αυτου τε | τραπλων ατιωα και αυτου χειρι διορθω | το και εσχολιογραφητο· οθεν ευσεβειος εγω | τα σχολια παρεθηκα· παμφιλος και ευσε | βειος διορθωσαντο.]
and to it is also due the writing which covers the first 12 leaves of the present book. Qb has been used to represent the cursive Greek hand or hands of the thirteenth century.
has been thought best on the whole to admit into the notes of this volume the
whole of the uncial writing in Q, with the exception of the patristic matter at
the beginning of the volume, and the memoranda on Isaiah and Ezekiel to which
reference has just been made.
In the Hexaplaric notes the symbols α΄, σ΄, (συ΄), θ΄(θε΄) represent the readings of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion respectively;
collectively the three versions are described as οι γ΄or simply γ΄, πάντες (π΄), or οι λοιποι;
the last term is also used when two of the versions agree against the third.
Οι ο΄marks a true Septuagintal reading, where it differs from the text of Q 1;
[Thus ὁμοίως τοῖς ο΄generally indicates the agreement of one or more of the versions with the Hexaplaric text of the LXX., as against the first hand of the codex.
The interpretation of the marginal notes is often a matter of some delicacy, and the perplexity of the student is occasionally increased by errors in the attachment of the notes to the text;
see Ceriani, pp. 13—15.];
ωρ [cannot be reproduced exactly here, but the ρ is superimposed over the ω. Katapi. Ed.]
stands for Origen, and the Hexapla is occasionally mentioned as τὸ ἑξασέλιδον.
The Hexaplaric signs employed in the MS. are the asterisk (※), the obelus
[looks like a ‘-’ (hyphen), with a ‘:’ (colon) underneath. Katapi. Ed.];
and the metobelus.
The metobelus has not been represented in the notes of this edition, and the obeli in the photograph of the MS. are often so faint and difficult to detect that their occurrence has not been, it is feared, at all uniformly noticed.
[Ceriani, p. 10; "attentos tamen obeli et acutos desiderant oculos, quia ualde interdum euanuerunt, uel in margine scriptura seriori fereobruuntur... primus fortasse Tischendorf obelos retulit in partibus quas edidit. Locos alios plures contuli, et passim quisque facile conferre potent."]
The asterisks in the margins belong to Qa;
those in the text were added by the scribe or by a hand contemporary with him.
elaborate examination of a number of test passages, Ceriani has shewn that the
original text of Q, which agrees largely with that of Cyril of Alexandria and
of the Memphitic version, is on the whole Egyptian, and of the type which, as
we learn from Jerome, was current in Egypt, the Hesychian recension of the LXX.
[Ceriani, p. 106.
For the reference to Jerome see the preface to the first volume of this edition, p. x;
and for a discussion of the Hesychian group of MSS., comp. Cornill, Ezekiel, p. 66 ff.]
MS. is a palimpsest of the Prophets which has long been in the possession of
the Basiltan house of Grotta ferrata, near Frascati4.
[The library of Grotta ferrata, which was founded in the eleventh century by Nilus of Rossano in Calabria, is rich in Greek MSS., of which the convent became a famous workshop (Montfaucon, Palaeogr. Graac, p. 113).
Most of its Greek MSS. are palimpsests. Cf. Mai, Spicil. Rom. t. ii. ii. p. 2 (cited by Rocchi, Codices Cryptenses, won. p. 2): "illud peculiare Cryptenaium codicum est quod paene omnes in palimpsestis scripti fuerunt;" "etenim hoc in more apud illos monachos positum fuisse uidetur, ut nunquam fere nouus codex exararetur, quin alicuius prisci et obsoleti membranae huic usui accommodarentur,"]
The codex when complete seems to have formed 54 quires of 8 leaves each, measuring, to judge from a photographed specimen, 10¾ x 8¼ inches;
the writing was in double columns of 25 to 28 lines, each line consisting of 13 to 20 letters;
the margins were of unusual breadth.
The handwriting, as shewn in the specimen, exhibits the sloping uncials which are characteristic of the eighth and ninth centuries. Initial letters often fall outside the column, and are coloured;
contractions and abbreviations, such as κ, ζ, μο, appear at the end of the lines;
the rough breathing occurs frequently, but accents Prima manu are rare.
the exception of a few fragments which have been discovered in other palimpsest
MSS. belonging to the same monastery,
[A few fragments were found by Cozza in Codd. Cryptof. Β β΄vii and A α΄vi.]
the surviving leaves of this great codex form part of a single volume (Ε. Β΄. vii. formerly C. 4) entitled Κοντάκια καὶ οῖκοι,
[Two forms of the hymn used in the Greek offices;
see Goar, Euchol, (Paris, 1647), in laud. off., notes 31, 32.
The fuller title of this volume is ψαλτικὸν σὺν θεῷ ἐνιαυτοῦ ὅλου· ποίημα Ῥωμανοῦ τοῦ μελωδοῦ.
There are tokens that it was written for use in the church of the monastery.]
and containing liturgical and poetical compositions accompanied by musical notation (neumes).
The hand which has written these pieces over the older writing is attributed to the i3th century.
In some places the parchment is doubly palimpsest;
a hand of the 10th century having written a work of St John of Damascus over the uncials,
[A Παρακλητικόν on the B.V.M.]
itself to undergo the same treatment from the later scribe of the hymns.
Other portions of the volume originally formed part of a collection of patristic homilies.
[Amongst these were extracts from Hippolytus, Athanasius, Chrysostom, Proclus, Eulogius of Alexandria.]
The palimpsest of the Prophets, however, supplied the thirteenth century scribe with the greater part of his parchment;
of the 190 leaves which make up the present codex, about 130 belonged to it.
Cozza, to whom we owe our knowledge of this MS., has found it possible to transcribe more or less fully 197 pages;
but in some contexts his transcript shews large gaps,
[Published in the Sacroruin bibliorum vetustissima fragmenta graeca et latino, vol. i. (Romae, 1867).]
and there are pages where the consecutive words are very few.
Hence it will be precarious for the reader of this edition to draw conclusions from the silence of Γ, which may be due to the impossibility of deciphering its testimony.
To call attention in the notes to all the passages where Cozza has failed to read his MS. would have been inconvenient and scarcely practicable.
But it may be well to mention here the contexts where the transcript is conspicuously defective:
the fragments of Hosea, Amos, and Haggai, Zech.x.10—end, Mal.i.11—ii.3, Isa.lii.12—liii.4, Iv.3—10, Jer.xx.3ff., li.-15 ft., Bar.i.12—ii.3, iii.32—iv.3ff., Lam.i.8—ii.14, Ep. of Jer.7—16, Ezek.xi.10—17, xvi.15—31, x.31—xxv.9, xxx.24—xxxi.4;
the fragments of Daniel.
These are large deductions from the usefulness of the codex, but it may be hoped that further examination may in time to come fill up much that is wanting now.
fragments contain Isa.iii.8—14, v.2—14, xxix.ii—23, xliv.26— xlv.5, written in
a bold and somewhat coarse uncial hand of the eighth or ninth century, so far
as it is possible to form a judgement from the specimen which Tischendorf
appends to his transcript.
Tischendorf himself is disposed to place it earlier, and considers that it was written in Egypt or the neighbourhood in the seventh century.
Each column of the MS. appears to have consisted of 19 lines, with 19 or 20 letters to the line.
An obelus is prefixed to Isa.iii.10 (εἰποντες... δύσχρηστος ἡμῖν ἐστιν).
fragments were found by Tischendorf during one of his journeys to Egypt and the
East (probably in 1853), and published in the Monumenta Sacra
Inedita, nov. coll. vol. i, (Lipsiae, 1857);
the transcript will be found on pp. 185—198, and the facsimile (Isa.iii.9—10) at the end of the volume (tab. iii. 5).
The upper writing is Armenian, and the six leaves which contain the fragments of Isaiah were probably part of the Armenian Codex to which the palimpsest fragments of the New Testament and of 2, 3 Regg., also published in the first volume of the Monnmenta, once belonged.
fragments (Isa.xxx.2—xxxi.7, xxxvi.7—xxxviii.1) are bound up in the volume
which contains the well-known palimpsest of St Matthew (Z), one of the
treasures of the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.
The volume consists of no leaves, and the later writing (? cent. xi.) presents extracts from various Greek fathers and ecclesiastical authors.
Sixty-nine of the leaves are palimpsest; of these twenty-nine originally contained portions of the orations of Gregory of Nazianzus, thirty-two belonged to the Gospel of St Matthew, and eight to Isaiah.
The eight leaves which yield fragments of Isaiah were but four in the original codex.
Each of the original leaves measured at least 12 x 9 inches;
the writing was in two columns of 36 lines, with 14—17 letters in each line. With two or three exceptions the characters resemble generally those of the fragments of St Matthew, and probably belong to the same age;
the forms of the A and M point to an Egyptian scribe,
[E. Maunde Thompson, Greek and Latin Palaeography. p. 154.]
and the general style of the writing is that of the early sixth century.
There are no large initials, the abbreviations are few and simple;
breathings and accents are entirely wanting, and the writing is continuous, except where a space denotes a break In the sense; the punctuation is limited to the use of a single point.
fragments of St Matthew were edited by Dr J. Barrett in 1801, when attention
was briefly called to the fragments of Isaiah.
[Evangelium sec. Matthaeum ex codice rescripto... opera et studio Joannis Barrett, S.T.P. (Dublinii, 1801):
see prolegg., p. 1.]
The latter have been published in facsimile by Dr T. K. Abbott, Professor of Hebrew, sometime Professor of Biblical Greek, in the University of Dublin, to whose account of the MS. the above description is chiefly due.
[Par Palimpsestorum Dublinensium:
The Codex rescriptus Dublinensis of S. Matthew's Gospel; also the fragments of the Book of Isaiah... by T. K. Attott, B.D. (Dublin and London, 1880).]
The Isaiah fragment was collated for Holmes and Parsons, and in their edition is denominated VIII:
Lagarde distinguishes it as O, and his symbol has been used in the present volume.
MS. contains Jeremiah, Baruch, Lamentations, Ep. of Jeremiah, Daniel κατὰ τοὺς ο΄, Hippolytus on Daniel, Daniel (Th.), Ezekiel, Isaiah.
Since there are no signatures, and both Daniel and Ezekiel begin fresh quires, it is impossible to say whether the order of the books is that of the original codex.
The present MS. is a large folio of 402 leaves, in gatherings of 8.
The handwriting appears to belong to the Calabrian school of Greek calligraphy, and the date usually assigned to it is the ninth century.
[The facsimile of Thren.v.14—Ep. Jer.2 which may be seen in Bianchini, Vindiciae, p. cclxxv, suggests a later date (?cent. xi).]
MS. once belonged to Pope Alexander VII., a member of the Chigi family, who
recognised its importance and entrusted the publication of the text to Leo
Allatius, at that time librarian of the Vatican.
Leo proceeded with his work so far as to procure a complete copy of the codex, and this transcript is still preserved among the Chigi MSS. (=R. vii. 46).
A century later Bianchini took up the work, and after his death the editio princeps appeared at Rome in 1772.
Among later editions are those of Michaelis, Segaar, Bugati, and Hahn; and the text was published in succession by Holmes and Parsons, Mai, and Tischendorf.
Meanwhile the MS. itself had received little attention, until at the suggestion of Vercellone a critical edition was undertaken by Cozza, whose labours, published in the third part of his Vetustissima. fragmenta, have at length provided Biblical scholars with an adequate transcript of this unique MS.
Oxford editors quote two Chigi MSS. on the Prophets, which they call 87 and 88.
[Praef. ad Esa.: " 87, Codex Bibliothecae Chisianae in fol. scriptus charactere saeculi ix. Continet Prophetas omnes... incipit ab Osea Propheta." Praef. ad Jer. "87, Codex Biblioth. Chisianae, num. ii. (cf. Praef. ad Esaiam). 88 Codex Biblioth. Chisianae, num. ill. membranaceus, in folio. Videtur esse transcriptus an. 880. Continet 4 Prophetas majores, cum Baruch et Abacum; sed incipit ab Hieremia, Margini adscribuntur Collationes Aquilae, &c., &c." Praef. ad Dan. " 87, saec. forte x, deficit a voce νηστειας cap. ix, 3, ad την πολιν σου, cap. ix, 19. 88, saec. xi, Continet textum Theodotionaeum et Septuagintauiralem." Field's remarks on 88 (Parsons) will be found in Hexapla, vol. ii. pp. 567, 766—7 ; on 87 (Parsons) he writes (ib. p. 767); "superset Parsonsii Cod. 87 (sive Chisianus ii), de quo in praesenti hoc unum affirmare possumus eum non esse celebrem ilium Chisianum... Hoc probatur, partim e lectionibus pro quibus Codicem suum 87 testem appellat Parsonsius...... partim e paucis Symmachi et Theodotionis lectiunculis quas versus finem libri idem ex eodem codice (nobis 87*) ex cerpsit, cum Chisianum (nobis 87) talibus accessionibus omnino carere constat."]
however, has shewn that their 88 is Leo Allatius's copy, and abandons the task of identifying their 87, while he uses the latter number for the true Chisian text. In this we have followed him, citing Chis. R. vii. 45 as 87.
Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Wisdom, Ecclesiastlcus, and all
the Prophets, from the literal Syriac version of the entire LXX. made from a
hexaplar text in the years 616—617 by Paul, Bishop of Tella dhe-Mauzelath or.
The MS. is of somewhat thick parchment, and almost everywhere well preserved.
It contains 193 leaves of 14½ x 10¾ inches; there are two columns to the page, each containing about 55 lines.
The character is a well-formed, somewhat thick Estrangelo, very easily read.
The titles, most headings of chapters and lessons, ornaments, and sometimes the larger points, are in red;
occasionally other colours are employed.
The asterisks and obeli of Origen's LXX. are faithfully reproduced, and many extracts from the other Greek versions are given, in a Syriac translation, in the margin.
The book of Daniel (including Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon) begins on the first page of f. 143, and ends with f. 151.
first volume of this codex was in the possession of Andreas Masius, but seems
to have disappeared at his death in 1573.
It contained part of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, the four books of Kings, Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, Judith, and part of Tobit.
The extant volume was brought to the Ambrosian Library early in the 17th century from the monastery of S. Maria Deipara in the desert of Scetis, as we learn from a note at the end, which Ceriani believes to be in the handwriting of Antonio Giggeo.
It lay for a long time unused, and attention was next called to it by Branca in 1767.
After he, Bjomstahl, and De Rossi had published descriptions and specimens, it was examined by Norberg in 1778;
and as a result he edited Jeremiah and Ezekiel.
Bugati published Daniel in 1788;
his Psalms appeared posthumously in 1820.
Middeldorpfs edition of Isaiah, the Minor Prophets, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Lamentations, and Ecclesiastes followed in 1835;
and the series 'was continued by Ceriani's edition of Baruch, Lamentations, and the Epistle of Jeremiah in Man. Sacra et Profana, t. i. (1861).
Of even greater value than these editions is his photolithographic reproduction of the entire codex issued at Milan in 1874.
Finally, the readings of the Syriac codex have been thoroughly examined and placed in comparison with those of Greek hexaplar MSS. by Field in his great work on the Hexapla.
vellum fragments making a quire of four leaves, each leaf measuring, when
complete, about 5⅛ x 3½
The first four pages contain portions of Bel and the Dragon (vv.20—41) according to Theodotion, in upright majuscules of the fifth if not the fourth century.
Underneath these on pp. 1, 2 in slightly sloping letters of perhaps the fourth century is a fragment of a (?) homily containing a reference to Matt.ix.37—8 or Luke x.2.
On pp. 3, 4 the original hand had written some Latin 'rustic' capitals, among which the words PROCVRATOR, PROCVRATORES, or part of them, frequently occur;
p. 5 has the letters DOMIT..., possibly referring to L. Domitius Domitianus, an Egyptian pretender in the time of Diocletian.
[Mr Nicholson adds:
"P. 5 contains upper writing consisting of fragments of (?) accounts in cursive Greek;
on pp. 6—8 appear the beginnings or ends of lines in slightly sloping Greek majuscules (? 4th century)."]
substance of this description is due to E. W. B. Nicholson, Esq., Librarian of
the Bodleian, who has very kindly supplied a collation of the fragment of Bel,
and subsequently compared the proof of the notes with the MS.
The scantiness of our uncial authorities for this part of the text of Theodotion's Daniel seemed to justify the use of the Oxford fragment, which has been quoted as Δ.
These interesting scraps were acquired by the Bodleian Library in 1888, and came from Egypt.
large folio vellum M S., the leaves of which measure 16½ x 11¾ inches;
written in the sloping uncials of the eighth and ninth centuries, with the exception of certain portions of the text which are in the round but artificial characters of the same period.
The writing is arranged in double columns of 60 lines, with an average of 30 letters to the Iine.
[A facsimile of Jeremiah xix.—xxi. may be seen in Wattenbach's scripturae graecae specimina (Berlin, 1883), tab. ix: cf. ib. pp. 4, 5.]
New sections begin with a letter (often an inch long) outside the column.
The parchment varies in quality;
it is usually thick but not coarse;
some leaves however are too thin to take the ink readily.
[Morelli recognises three hands, distinguished by the colour of the ink as well as by the varying merits of their calligraphy;
Job xxx.8 to end of Ecclesiastes was written by one hand, Hosea to Isaiah xxvii. by a second, and Isaiah xxvii. to the end of the volume by a third.]
The MS. is gathered in quires of 8 leaves, bearing signatures which range from κς΄(Va) on f. 1 to με΄(Va = μς΄ V*) on f. 153. Thus the original Codex seems to have consisted of about 360 leaves, of which the first 196 have perished.
[A leaf, once pasted inside the cover of an earlier binding, contains in a Greek hand of the fifteenth or sixteenth century a list of the contents at that time, from which it appears that the MS. was then imperfect: + ἡ βίβλος αὔτη περιέχει Ἰώβ, παροινίας Ζολομῶντος, κ.τ.λ.]
The present volume begins with Job xxx.8 (καὶ κλέος) and contains the rest of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, both Wisdoms, the Minor Prophets (in the order Hos., Am., Joel, Ob., Jon., Mic., Nab., Hab., Zeph., Hag., Zech., Mal.), Isaiah, Jeremiah, Baruch, Lamentations, Daniel (with the apocryphal additions), Tobit, Judith, and the four Books of the Maccabees.
After Daniel, and again after 4 Mace,, the scribe has copied from his archetype a chronological table reaching from Adam to Justinian I, which in the second and fuller form ends ὡς ὁμοῦ (cod. ωμ.) γίνεσθαι ἀπὸ χῦ παρουσίας ἔως ὧδε ἔτε φογ (ut vid): the margin adds εἰσὶν ἔως ὧδε ἔτη σπε.
An ornamental cross below these dates bears the inscription:
Κύριε, βοήθει (cod. -θη) Βασιλείῳ μοναχῷ (cod. ἰγ.) τῆς Κάρον (sic, ut vid) τῷ συνγραψαμένῳ τὴν βίβλον ταύτην (cod. τι βιβλίω ταυτίω):
and beneath the cross is added ¨Παρακαλω εὔχεσθαι ὑπὲρ Ὀνησίμου μοναχοῦ καλλιγράφου. ἀμήν.
On ff. 163b— 164b a minute hand has written the Eusebian canons.
This precious MS. belonged to the library of Cardinal Bessarion, by whom it was given with the rest of his Greek codices to the library of Saint Mark's at Venice.
was used for the great Roman edition of 1587, as the preface to that volume
[The words are:
"Ex omnibus autem libris qui in manibus fuerunt, unus hie [Vat. Gr. 1209] prae aliis......minim in modum institutam emendationem adiuuit; post eum uero alii duo qui ad eius uetustatem proximi quidem sed longo proximi interuallo accedunt, unus Uenetus ex bibliotheca Bessarionis Cardinalis, et is quoque grandiorlbus litteris scriptus," &c.]
and probably supplies in great part the text of the first three Books of the Maccabees, which are wanting in the Vatican codex.
Specimens of its readings were liberally produced by Zanetti in his catalogue of the Greek MSS. of St Mark's (Venice, 1740),
[See Graeca D. Marci Bibliotheca codd.manuscriptorum, pp. i—13.]
and the importance of the MS. was recognised by Giac. Morelli, who described it at length in his account of the codices under his care.
Stroth also gave some account of it in Eichhorn's Repertorium for 1781 (p. 181).
A collation of the whole MS. was made for Holmes and Parsons in 1789 by Geo. Zoega and Nich. Schow;
the correspondence which relates to this undertaking is still preserved in the Venice library.
The Oxford editors, however, were not at first made aware that it was written in uncials, and it takes rank in their notes as a cursive under the number 23.
The prologues to the Prophets were printed by Tischendorf in his Anecdota sacra et profana, pp. 103—9, Lips. 1855.
the present edition Cod. V has been employed only for the four Books of
Maccabees, where the paucity of uncial testimony rendered it necessary to
depart from the rule which prescribed the sole use of such MSS. as are
accessible in published facsimiles and photographs.
[For 4 Mace. help may be expected from the Syriac version, the text of which, constructed by Prof. Bensly from 9 MSS., has been in type since 1868, and will shortly be published by the Cambridge University Press.]
The four Books as given in V were collated afresh by the Editor of this work in the spring of the present year;
but by the courtesy of Dr E. Klostermann he had been previously provided with a collation of the second Book, which that scholar had made in 1892—3, and Dr Klostermann has since kindly compared the new collation of Books i.—iii. with his own.
[Dr Klostermann hopes to work through V a second time with the view of perfecting his collation of this important MS.]
Where the two collations have differed, an appeal has been made to the notes of Holmes and Parsons.
MS. has been corrected by the scribe himself or his diorthota. (V1),
and by a late hand (Va, but the corrections with few exceptions affect
only the spellings.
leaves used in the binding of the MS. of the Acts, Epistles and Apocalypse
known as Codex Porfirianus Chiavensis (P), and published by Tischendorf with a
facsimile of the writing in Mon. Sacr. vi. 339, 340 f.
Tischendorf ascribes the hand to the seventh century; but the characters, which are large, coarsely formed, and sloping, are suggestive of the ninth.
The fragments (viii.5, 6, 11, 12, 15, 29; ix.28—30, 31, 32), brief as they are, present some peculiar readings, which seemed to justify their employment in the present edition.
following MSS. have been used for the Psalms of Solomon.
The description of the first three and of the fifth is drawn from the edition of Professor Ryle and Dr James.
A folio MS. of the loth century written in double
The volume was purchased at Venice in 1699, and in 1732 passed into the Royal Library at Copenhagen, where it is still preserved (no. 6).
It consists at present of quires 11—39 of the original MS., containing Job (with a catena), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles (these three books with scholia). Wisdom of Solomon, Psalms of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus.
The collation of the Psalms of Solomon was made by Professor Ryle in 1888 at Cambridge, where the MS. was deposited for the purpose by the courtesy of the Copenhagen authorities.
A thirteenth century MS., consisting of 225 leaves,
measuring 13¾ x 11 inches, written in two or sometimes in three columns.
The book contains Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Wisdom of Solomon, Psalms of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus;
the first four Books are accompanied by catenae or scholia.
This MS. was brought to Moscow in 1653 from the monastery of Iveron at Mt. Athos.
A transcript of the Psalms was furnished to Professor Ryle and Dr James by the Archimandrite Wladimir of Moscow;
the collation which has been used was made from this copy by the present editor.
A quarto of 495 leaves written on paper in 1419,
of miscellaneous matter and containing inter alia (ff. 224a—248a)
the Wisdom and Psalms of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus.
The volume is preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, where it is numbered 2991 a.
We have used a collation which was made for the Cambridge edition of the Psalms by the Abbe Batiffol, of Paris.
This MS., which is cited by Parsons as 253, and is used
by him for Job, Proverbs, Canticles, the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus,
is a quarto vellum MS. ascribed to the fourteenth century.
A complete collation of the codex was made by Dr E. Klostermann in 1893, and from his collation of the Psalms with the text printed by Hilgenfeld in the Zeitschrift f. wiss. Th. xi. p. 133 ff. the text in this edition has been derived.
The MS. will be fully described in Dr Klostermann's forthcoming Analecta zur Septuaginta.
A folio MS. of the tenth century written in double
columns of 26 lines, and in a semiuncial hand.
The volume, which is numbered Cod, Gr. Theol. 7, and was purchased at Constantinople in the sixteenth century, consists of 166 leaves, and contains Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles (with a catena so far), Wisdom of Solomon, Psalms of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus.
The collation which we have used was communicated to the Cambridge editors of the Psalms by Dr Rudolf Beer.
The Greek Psalters which supply the text of the ecclesiastical Canticles and of the notes upon them have been described in the preface to the second volume of this work (pp. viii.—.).
The pleasant duty remains of acknowledging the help which has been
liberally rendered on every side.
Official duties have prevented the editor from devoting to this volume so much of his time as he was able to give to the two volumes which preceded it.
The greater part of the preparatory work has therefore been entrusted to two colleagues, the Rev. Forbes Robinson, M.A., of Christ's College, and H. St John Thackeray, Esq., M.A., of King's College, whose assistance the Syndics of the Press have kindly enabled him to secure.
Mr Robinson collated the photographs of BAQ as far as Jeremiah xxxvi, where his work was taken up by Mr Thackeray, who has completed the task, and has also prepared the appendix of unsubstantial variants.
Without the patient and accurate labour of these fellow-workers the appearance of the third volume would have been delayed perhaps for several years.
Students who use this volume will also owe a debt of gratitude to Mr Redpath and to Dr Nestle, who have continued their invaluable work of revision.
Mr Redpath has again read through the proofs, with excellent results, and Dr Nestle generously volunteered to recollate the whole of the sheets of the Prophets with the photographs of B.
It may therefore be hoped that a near approach to perfect accuracy has been made so far as that MS. is concerned.
In dealing with the textual difficulties of the second Book of Maccabees the Editor has been assisted by the yet unpublished revision of the English version and by a list of readings prepared for the use of the revisers, proofs of which have been supplied to him by the kindness of Dr Moulton.
great scholar to whom this book owed its inception and its inspiration, is,
alas, no longer with us.
But the recollection of Dr Hort's keen interest in the progress of the work—
an interest sustained to the last days of his life—
remains to give strength to those who are about to enter on the more arduous and responsible task of preparing the larger edition of the Cambridge Septuagint.
death of Dr Hort on Nov. 30, 1892, was followed within six months by that of
Professor Bensly, whilst in the present year the University has been called to
deplore the loss of Professor W. Robertson Smith.
In each of these eminent Oriental scholars this undertaking found a warm friend.
Professor Bensly was at the time of his death a member of the LXX. Committee, and he had hoped to take an active part in the collection of materials for the larger edition.
Professor Robertson Smith's deep interest in all that concerns the study of the Old Testament secured for the Cambridge Septuagint his steady support and occasional but valuable assistance;
within a few weeks of his death his counsel was sought upon some doubtful points connected with the present volume, and most kindly given.
conclusion, the Editor desires to express his personal thanks to the Syndics of
the University Press for the indulgence they have shewn to him during the course
of a work which has necessarily been of slow and uncertain growth;
to the Septuagint Committee for their consideration of the questions which have from time to time been submitted to their judgement;
and to the officers and workmen, especially the readers, of the Press, whose unremitting attention has brought the printing of these volumes to a successful end.
the end of Vol. ii. the Editor was able to insert a list of "additions and
corrections to be made in the text, notes, and appendix of Vol. i., communicated
by Dr Nestle—
the result of a comparison of the text and ' hands' of B as represented in that volume with his Supplementum editionum."
Such a list, however useful for the time, was necessarily provisional, since the Supplementum was based upon a collation of a facsimile of the Vatican MS. and not upon the MS. itself or a photograph of it.
The completion of the photograph of B has now made it possible to subject both of the earlier volumes to a thorough revision, so far as that MS. is concerned; and this has been voluntarily undertaken and executed by the same competent hand.
Dr Nestle has also collated afresh the photograph of A for those parts of the text which are supplied by Codex Alexandrinus.
In a second edition the whole of his results will find a permanent place, with the exception of certain palaeographical and liturgical details which do not fall within the scope of the work.
Meanwhile by Dr Nestle's desire the corrections of the text are placed at the end of the present volume for the benefit of purchasers of the first edition.
No one who is accustomed to the labour of collation will fail to appreciate the self-sacrifice which has prompted the indefatigable author of the Supplementumt to work page by page through the volumes of the Roman photograph for the purpose of securing perfect accuracy in this representation of the oldest MS. of the LXX.
[The collation was made from a copy of the photograph in the possession of Professor Robinson, who kindly lent it to Dr Nestle for the purpose.]
Codex Sinaiticus ( = S, Lagarde, Nestle).
Codex Alexandrinus ( = III, Parsons).
Codex Vaticanus ( = II, Parsons).
Fragmenta rescripta Dublinensia (= VIII, Parsons).
Codex Marchalianus ( = , Parsons).
Codex Venetus ( = 23, Parsons).
Fragmenta rescripta Tischendorfiana Isaiae prophetae ( = Zb, Lagarde).
Codex rescriptus Cryptoferratensis.
Fragmenta rescripta Bodleiana.
Fragmenta Tischendorfiana libri iv. Maccab.ieorum.
Codex Chisianus LXXviralis libri Danielis.
Codex Syro-Hexaplaris Ambrosianus.
Psalterium Codicis Alexandrini ( = III, Parsons).
Psalterium Graeco-Latinum Veronense.
Psalterium Turicense ( = 262, Parsons).