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Leviticus


  1.

LEVITICUS. RULES OF WORSHIP: Sacrifice.

1THE LORD SUMMONED MOSES and spoke to him from the Tent of the Presence, and said, 2Say this to the Israelites: When any man among you presents an animal as an offering to the LORD, the offering may be presented either from the herd or from the flock.

3If his offering is a whole-offering from the cattle, he shall present a male without blemish ; he shall present it at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence before the LORD so as to secure acceptance for himself. 4He shall lay his hand on the head of the victim and it will be accepted on his behalf Or by him (the LORD) to make expiation for him. 5He shall slaughter the bull before the LORD, and the Aaronite priests shall present the blood and fling it against the altar all round at the entrance of the Tent of the Presence. 6He shall then flay the victim and cut it up. 7The sons of Aaron the priest shall kindle a fire On the altar and arrange wood on the fire. 8The Aaronite priests shall arrange the pieces, including the head and the suet, on the wood on the altar-fire, 9the entrails and shins shall be washed in water, and the priest shall burn it all on the altar as a whole-offering, a food-offering of soothing odour to the LORD.

10If the man's whole-offering is from the flock, either from the rams or from the goats, he shall present a male without blemish. 11He shall slaughter it before the LORD at the north side of the altar, and the Aaronite priests shall fling the blood against the altar all round. 12He shall cut it up, and the priest shall arrange the pieces, together with the head and the suet, on the wood on the altar-fire, 13the entrails and shins shall be washed in water, and the priest shall present and burn it all on the altar: it is a whole-offering, a food-offering of soothing odour to the LORD.

14If a man's offering to the LORD is a whole-offering of birds, he shall present turtle-doves or young pigeons as his offering. 15The priest shall present it at the altar, and shall wrench off the head and burn it on the altar; and the blood shall be drained out against the side of the altar. 16He shall take away the crop and its contents in one piece, and throw it to the east side of the altar where the ashes are. 17He shall tear it by its wings without severing them completely, and shall burn it on the altar, on top of the wood of the altar-fire: it is a whole-offering, a food-offering of soothing odour to the LORD.


  2.

Grain-offerings.

1When any person presents a grain-offering to the LORD, his offering shall be of flour. He shall pour oil on it and add frankincense to it. 2He shall bring it to the Aaronite priests, one of whom shall scoop up a handful of the flour and oil with all the frankincense. The priest shall burn this as a token on the altar, a food-offering of soothing odour to the LORD. 3The remainder of the grain-offering belongs to Aaron and his sons: it is most sacred, it is taken from the food-offerings of the LORD.

4When you present as a grain-offering something baked in an oven, it shall consist of unleavened cakes of flour mixed with oil and unleavened wafers smeared with oil. 5If your offering is a grain-offering cooked on a griddle, it shall be an unleavened cake of flour mixed with oil. 6Crumble it in pieces and pour oil on it. This is a grain-offering.

7If your offering is a grain-offering cooked in a pan, it shall be made of flour with oil. 8Bring an offering made up in this way to the LORD and present it to the priest, who shall bring it to the altar; 9then he shall set aside part of the grain-offering as a token and burn it on the altar, a food-offering of soothing odour to the LORD. 10The remainder of the grain-offering belongs to Aaron and his sons: it is most sacred, it is taken from the food-offerings of the LORD.

11No grain-offering which you present to the LORD shall be made of anything that ferments; you shall not burn any leaven or any honey as a food-offering to the LORD. 12As for your offering of flrstfruits, you shall present them to the LORD, but they shall not be offered up at the altar as a soothing odour. 13Every offering of yours which is a grain-offering shall be salted; you shall not fail to put the salt of your covenant with God on your grain-offering. Salt shall accompany all offerings.

14If you present to the LORD a grain-offering of first-ripe grain, you must present fresh corn roasted, crushed meal from fully ripened corn. 15You shall add oil to it and put frankincense upon it. This is a grain-offering. 16The priest shall burn as its token some of the crushed meal, some of the oil, and all the frankincense as a food-offering to the LORD.


  3.

Fellowship offerings.

1If a man's offering is a shared-offering from the cattle, male or female, he shall present it without blemish before the LORD. 2He shall lay his hand on the head of the victim and slaughter it at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence. The Aaronite priests shall fling the blood against the altar all round. 3One of them shall present part of the shared-offering as a food-offering to the LORD: he shall remove the fat covering the entrails and all the fat upon the entrails, 4the two kidneys with the fat on them beside the haunches, and the long lobe of the liver with the kidneys. 5The Aaronites shall burn it on the altar on top of the whole-offering which is upon the wood on the fire, a food-offering of soothing odour to the LORD.

6If a man's offering as a shared-offering to the LORD is from the flock, male or female, he shall present it without blemish. 7If he is presenting a ram as his offering, he shall present it before the LORD, 8lay his hand on the head of the victim and slaughter it in front of the Tent of the Presence. The Aaronites shall then fling its blood against the altar all round. 9He shall present part of the shared-offering as a food-offering to the LORD; he shall remove its fat, the entire fat-tail cut off close by the spine, the fat covering the entrails and all the fat upon the entrails, 10the two kidneys with the fat on them beside the haunches, and the long lobe of the liver with the kidneys. 11The priest shall burn it at the altar, as food offered to the LORD.

12If the man's offering is a goat, he shall present it before the LORD, 13lay his hand on its head and slaughter it in front of the Tent of the Presence. The Aaronites shall then fling its blood against the altar all round. 14He shall present part of the victim as a food-offering to the LORD, he shall remove the fat covering the entrails and all the fat upon the entrails, 15the two kidneys with the fat on them beside the haunches, and the long lobe of the liver with the kidneys. 16The priest shall burn this at the altar, as a food-offering of soothing odour. All fat belongs to the LORD. 17This is a rule for all time from generation to generation wherever you live: you shall not eat any fat or any blood.


  4.

Offerings for unintentional sins.

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES and said, 2Say this to the Israelites: These are the rules for any man who inadvertently transgresses any of the commandments of the LORD and does anything prohibited by them:

3If the anointed priest sins so as to bring guilt on the people, for the sin he has committed he shall present to the LORD a young bull without blemish as a sin-offering. 4He shall bring the bull to the entrance of the Tent of the Presence before the LORD, lay his hand on its head and slaughter it before the LORD. 5The anointed priest shall then take some of its blood and bring it to the Tent of the Presence. 6He shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle some of the blood in front of the sacred Veil seven times before the LORD. 7The priest shall then put some of the blood before the LORD in the Tent of the Presence on the horns of the altar where fragrant incense is burnt, and he shall pour the rest of the bull's blood at the base of the altar of whole-offering at the entrance of the Tent of the Presence. 8He shall set aside all the fat from the bull of the sin-offering; he shall set aside the fat covering the entrails and all the fat upon the entrails, 9the two kidneys with the fat on them beside the haunches, and the long lobe of the liver with the kidneys. 10It shall be set aside as the fat from the ox at the shared-offering is set aside. The priest shall burn the pieces of fat on the altar of whole-offering. 11But the skin of the bull and all its flesh, including head and shins, its entrails and offal, 12the whole of it, he shall take away outside the camp to a place ritually clean, where the ash-heap is, and destroy it on a wood-fire on top of the ash-heap.

13If the whole community of Israel sins inadvertently and the matter is not known to the assembly, if they do what is forbidden in any commandment of the LORD and so incur guilt, 14then, when the sin they have committed is notified to them, the assembly shall present a young bull as a sin-offering and shall bring it in front of the Tent of the Presence. 15The elders of the community shall lay their hands on the victim's head before the LORD, and it shall be slaughtered before the LORD. 16The anointed priest shall then bring some of the blood to the Tent of the Presence, 17dip his finger in it and sprinkle it in front of the Veil seven times before the LORD. 18He shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar before the LORD in the Tent of the Presence and pour all the rest at the base of the altar of whole-offering at the entrance of the Tent of the Presence. 19He shall then set aside all the fat from the bull and burn it on the altar. 20He shall deal with this bull as he deals with the bull of the sin-offering, and in this way the priest shall make expiation for their guilt and they shall be forgiven. 21He shall take the bull outside the camp and burn it as the other bull was burnt. This is a sin-offering for the assembly.

22When a man of standing sins by doing inadvertently what is forbidden in any commandment of the LORD his God, thereby incurring guilt, 23and the sin he has committed is made known to him, he shall bring as his offering a he-goat without blemish. 24He shall lay his hand on the goat's head and shall slaughter it before the LORD in the place where the whole-offering is slaughtered. It is a sin-offering. 25The priest shall then take some of the blood of the victim with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of whole-offering. He shall pour out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar of whole-offering. 26He shall burn all the fat at the altar in the same way as the fat of the shared-offering. Thus the priest shall make expiation for that man's sin, and it shall be forgiven him.

27If any person among the common people sins inadvertently and does what is forbidden in any commandment of the LORD, thereby incurring guilt, 28and the sin he has committed is made known to him, he shall bring as his offering for the sin which he has committed a she-goat without blemish. 29He shall lay his hand on the head of the victim and slaughter it in the place where the whole-offering is slaughtered. 30The priest shall then take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of whole-offering. All the rest of the blood he shall pour at the base of the altar. 31He shall remove all its fat as the fat of the shared-offering is removed, and the priest shall burn it on the altar as a soothing odour to the LORD. So the priest shall make expiation for that person's guilt, and it shall be forgiven him.

32If the man brings a sheep as his offering for sin, it shall be a ewe without blemish. 33He shall lay his hand on the head of the victim and slaughter it as a sin-offering in the place where the whole-offering is slaughtered. 34The priest shall then take some of the blood of the victim with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of whole-offering. All the rest of the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar. 35He shall remove all the fat, as the fat of the sheep is removed from the shared-offering. The priest shall burn the pieces of fat at the altar on top of the food-offerings to the LORD, and shall make expiation for the sin that the man has committed, and it shall be forgiven him.


  5.

Sin-offerings.

1IF A PERSON HEARS a solemn adjuration to give evidence as a witness to something he has seen or heard and does not declare what he knows, he commits a sin and must accept responsibility.

2If a person touches anything unclean, such as the dead body of an unclean animal, whether wild or domestic, or of an unclean reptile, 3or if he touches anything unclean in a man, whatever that uncleanness may be, and it is concealed by him although he is aware of it, he shall incur guilt. 4Or if a person rashly utters an oath to do something evil or good, in any matter in which such a man may swear a rash oath, and it is concealed by him although he is aware of it, he shall in either case incur guilt. 5Whenever a man incurs guilt in any of these cases and confesses how he has sinned therein, 6he shall bring to the LORD, as his penalty for the sin that he has committed, a female of the flock, either a ewe or a she-goat, as a sin-offering, and the priest shall make expiation for him on account of his sin which he has committed, and he shall be pardoned.

7But if he cannot afford as much as a young animal, he shall bring to the LORD for the sin he has committed two turtle-doves or two young pigeons, one for a sin-offering and the other for a whole-offering. 8He shall bring them to the priest, and present first the one intended for the sin-offering. He shall wrench its head back without severing it. 9He shall sprinkle some of the blood of the victim against the side of the altar, and what is left of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar: it is a sin-offering. 10He shall deal with the second bird as a whole-offering according to custom, and the priest shall make expiation for the sin the man has committed, and it shall be forgiven him.

11If the man cannot afford two turtle-doves or two young pigeons, for his sin he shall bring as his offering a tenth of an ephah of flour, as a sin-offering. He shall add no oil to it nor put frankincense on it, because it is a sin-offering. 12He shall bring it to the priest, who shall scoop up a handful from it as a token and burn it on the altar on the food-offerings to the LORD: it is a sin~offering. 13The priest shall make expiation for the sin the man has committed in any one of these cases, and it shall be forgiven him. The remainder belongs to the priest, as with the grain-offering.

Tythe offerings.

14The LORD spoke to Moses and said: 15When any person commits an offence by inadvertently defaulting in dues sacred to the LORD, he shall bring as his guilt-offering to the LORD a ram without blemish from the flock, the value to be determined by you in silver shekels according to the sacred standard, for a guilt-offering; 16he shall make good his default in sacred dues, adding one fifth. He shall give it to the priest, who shall make expiation for his sin with the ram of the guilt-offering, and it shall be forgiven him.

17If and when any person sins unwittingly and does what is forbidden by any commandment of the LORD, thereby incurring guilt, he must accept responsibility. 18He shall bring to the priest as a guilt-offering a ram without blemish from the flock, valued by you, and the priest shall make expiation for the error into which he has unwittingly fallen, and it shall be forgiven him. 19It is a guilt-offering ; he has been guilty of an offence against the LORD.


  6.

1The LORD spoke to Moses and said: 2When any person sins and commits a grievous fault against the LORD, whether he lies to a fellow-countryman about a deposit or contract, or a theft, Or wrongs him by extortion, 3Or finds lost property and then lies about it, and swears a false oath in regard to any sin of this sort that he commits—

Cereal offerings.

4if he does this, thereby incurring guilt, he shall restore what he has stolen or gained by extortion, or the deposit left with him or the lost property which he found, 5or anything at all concerning which he swore a false oath. He shall make full restitution, adding one fifth to it, and give it back to the aggrieved party on the day when he offers his guilt-offering. 6He shall bring to the LORD as his guilt-offering a ram without blemish from the flock, valued by you, as a guilt-offering. 7The priest shall make expiation for his guilt before the LORD, and he shall be forgiven for any act which has brought guilt upon him.

Whole offerings.

8THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES and said, 9Give this command to Aaron and his sons: This is the law of the whole-offering. The whole-offering shall remain on the altar-hearth all night till morning, and the altar-fire shall be kept burning there. 10Then the priest, having donned his linen robe and put on linen drawers to cover himself, shall remove the ashes to which the fire reduces the whole-offering on the altar and put them beside the altar. 11He shall then change into other garments and take the ashes outside the camp to a ritually clean place. 12The fire shall be kept burning on the altar; it shall never go out. Every morning the priest shall have fresh wood burning thereon, arrange the whole-offering on it, and on top bum the fat from the shared-offerings. 13Fire shall always be kept burning on the altar; it shall not go out.

14This is the law of the grain-offering. The Aaronites shall present it before the LORD in front of the altar. 15The priest shall set aside a handful of the flour from it, with the oil of the grain-offering, and all the frankincense on it. He shall burn this token of it on the altar as a soothing odour to the LORD. 16The remainder Aaron and his sons shall eat. It shall be eaten in the form of unleavened cakes and in a holy place. They shall eat it in the court of the Tent of the Presence. 17It shall not be baked with leaven. I have allotted this to them as their share of my food-offerings. Like the sin-offering and the guilt-offering, it is most sacred. 18Any male descendant of Aaron may eat it, as a due from the food-offerings to the LORD, for generation after generation for all time. Whatever touches them is to be forfeit as sacred.

19The LORD spoke to Moses and said: 20This is the offering which Aaron and his sons shall present to the LORD prob. rdg, Heb adds on the day when he is anointed: one tenth of an ephah of flour, the usual grain-offering, half of it in the morning and half in the evening. 21It shall be cooked with oil on a griddle; you shall bring it well-mixed, and so present it crumbled in small pieces as a grain-offering, a soothing odour to the LORD. 22The anointed priest in the line of Aaron shall offer it. This is a rule binding for all time. It shall be burnt in sacrifice to the LORD as a complete offering. 23Every grain-offering of a priest shall be a complete offering; it shall not be eaten.

Sin offerings.

24The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 25Speak to Aaron and his sons in these words: This is the law of the sin-offering. The sin-offering shall be slaughtered before the LORD in the place where the whole-offering is slaughtered; it is most sacred. 26The priest who officiates shall eat of the flesh; it shall be eaten in a sacred place, in the court of the Tent of the Presence. 27Whatever touches its flesh is to be forfeit as sacred. If any of the blood is splashed on a garment, that shall be washed in a sacred place. 28An earthenware vessel in which the sin-offering is boiled shall be smashed. If it has been boiled in a copper vessel, that shall be scoured and rinsed with water. 29Any male of priestly family may eat of this offering; it is most sacred. 30If, however, part of the blood is brought to the Tent of the Presence to make expiation in the holy place, the sin-offering shall not be eaten; it shall be destroyed by fire.


  7.

Tythe offerings.

1This is the law of the guilt-offering: it is most sacred. 2The guilt-offering shall be slaughtered in the place where the whole-offering is slaughtered, and its blood shall be flung against the altar all round. 3The priest shall set aside and present all the fat from it: the fat-tail and the fat covering the entrails, 4the two kidneys with the fat on them beside the haunches, and the long lobe of the liver with the kidneys. 5The priest shall burn these pieces on the altar as a food-offering to the LORD; it is a guilt-offering. 6Any male of priestly family may eat it. It shall be eaten in a sacred place; it is most sacred. 7There is one law for both sin-offering and guilt-offering: they shall belong to the priest who performs the rite of expiation. 8The skin of any man's whole-offering shall belong to the priest who presents it. 9Every grain-offering baked in an oven and everything that is cooked in a pan or on a griddle shall belong to the priest who presents it. 10Every grain-offering, whether mixed with oil or dry, shall be shared equally among all the Aaronites.

Fellowship offerings.

11This is the law of the shared-offering presented to the LORD. 12If a man presents it as a thank-offering, then, in addition to the thank-offering, he shall present unleavened cakes mixed with oil, wafers of unleavened flour smeared with oil, and well-mixed flour and flat cakes mixed with oil. 13He shall present flat cakes of leavened bread in addition to his shared thank-offering. 14One part of every offering he shall present as a contribution for the LORD: it shall belong to the priest who flings the blood of the shared-offering against the altar. 15The flesh shall be eaten on the day of its presentation; none of it shall be put aside till morning.

16If a man's sacrifice is a votive offering or a freewill offering, it may be eaten on the day it is presented or on the next day. 17Any flesh left over on the third day shall be destroyed by fire. 18If any flesh of his shared-offering is eaten on the third day, the man who has presented it shall not be accepted. It will not be counted to his credit, it shall be reckoned as tainted and the person who eats any of it shall accept responsibility. 19No flesh which comes into contact with anything unclean shall be eaten; it shall be destroyed by fire.

The flesh may be eaten by anyone who is clean, 20but the person who, while unclean, eats flesh from a shared-offering presented to the LORD shall be cut off from his father's kin. 21When any person is contaminated by contact with anything unclean, be it man, beast, or reptile, and then eats. any of the flesh from the shared-offerings presented to the LORD, that person shall be cut off from his father's kin.

22The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 23Speak to the Israelites in these words: You shall not eat the fat of any ox, sheep, or goat. 24The fat of an animal that has died a natural death or has been mauled by wild beasts may be put to any other use, but you shall not eat it. 25Every man who eats fat from a beast of which he has presented any part as a food-offering to the LORD shall be cut off from his father's kin.

26You shall eat none of the blood, whether of bird or of beast, wherever you may live. 27Every person who eats any of the blood shall be cut off from his father's kin.

28The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 29Speak to the Israelites in these words: Whoever comes to present a shared-offering shall set aside part of it as an offering to the LORD. 30With his own hands he shall bring the food-offerings to the LORD. He shall also bring the fat together with the breast which is to be presented as a special gift before the LORD; 31the priest shall burn the fat on the altar, but the breast shall belong to Aaron and his descendants. 32You shall give the right hind-leg of your shared-offerings as a contribution for the priest; 33it shall be the perquisite of the Aaronite who presents the blood and the fat of the shared-offering. 34I have taken from the Israelites the breast of the special gift and the leg of the contribution made out of the shared-offerings, and have given them as a due from the Israelites to Aaron the priest and his descendants for all time. 35This is the portion prescribed for Aaron and his descendants out of the LORD's food-offerings, appointed on the day when they were presented as priests to the LORD; 36and on the day when they were anointed, the LORD commanded that these prescribed portions should be given to them by the Israelites. This is a rule binding on their descendants for all time.

37This, then, is the law of the whole-offering, the grain-offering, the sin-offering, the guilt-offering, the installation-offerings, and the shared-offerings, 38with which the LORD charged Moses on Mount Sinai on the day when he commanded the Israelites to present their offerings to the LORD in the wilderness of Sinai.


  8.

Ordination of priests of Aaron's line.

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES and said, 2'Take Aaron and his sons with him, the vestments, the anointing oil, the ox for a sin-offering, the two rams, and the basket of unleavened cakes, 3and assemble all the community at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence.' 4Moses did as the LORD had commanded him, and the community assembled at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence. 5He told the community that this was what the LORD had commanded. 6He presented Aaron and his sons and washed them in water. 7He invested Aaron with the tunic, girded him with the sash, robed him with the mantle, put the ephod on him, tied it with its waist-band and fastened the ephod to him with the band. 8He put the breast-piece Or pouch on him and set the Urim and Thummim in it. 9He then put the turban upon his head and set the gold rosette as a symbol of holy dedication on the front of the turban, as the LORD had commanded him. 10Moses then took the anointing oil, anointed the Tabernacle and all that was within it and consecrated them. 11He sprinkled some of the oil seven times on the altar, anointing the altar, all its vessels, the basin and its stand, to consecrate them. 12He poured some of the anointing oil on Aaron's head and so consecrated him. 13Moses then brought the sons of Aaron forward, invested them with tunics, girded them with sashes and tied their tall head-dresses on them, as the LORD had commanded him.

14He then brought up the ox for the sin-offering; Aaron and his sons laid their hands on its head, 15and he slaughtered it. Moses took some of the blood and put it with his finger on the horns round the altar. Thus he purified the altar, and when he had poured out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar, he consecrated it by making expiation for it. 16He took all the fat upon the entrails, the long lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys with their fat, and burnt them on the altar, 17but the ox, its skin, its flesh, and its offal, he destroyed by fire outside the camp, as the LORD had commanded him.

18Moses then brought forward the ram of the whole-offering; Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the ram's head, 19and he slaughtered it. Moses flung its blood against the altar all round. 20He cut the ram up and burnt the head, the pieces, and the suet. 21He washed the entrails and the shins in water and burnt the whole on the altar. This was a whole-offering, a food-offering of soothing odour to the LORD, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

22Moses then brought forward the second ram, the ram for the installation of priests. Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon its head, 23and he slaughtered it. Moses took some of its blood and put it on the lobe of Aaron's right ear, on his right thumb, and on the big toe of his right foot. 24He then brought forward the sons of Aaron, put some of the blood on the lobes of their right ears, on their right thumbs, and on the big toes of their right feet. He flung the rest of the blood against the altar all round; 25he took the fat, the fat-tail, the fat covering the entrails, the long lobe of the liver, the two kidneys with their fat, and the right leg. 26Then from the basket of unleavened cakes before the LORD he took one unleavened cake, one cake of bread made with oil, and one wafer, and laid them on the fatty parts and the right leg. 27He put the whole on the hands of Aaron and of his sons, and he presented it as a special gift before the LORD. 28He took it from their hands and burnt it on the altar on top of the whole-offering. This was an installation-offering, it was a food-offering of soothing odour to the LORD.

29Moses then took the breast and presented it as a special gift before the LORD; it was his portion of the ram of installation, as the LORD had commanded him. 30He took some of the anointing oil and some of the blood on the altar and sprinkled it on Aaron and his vestments, and on his sons and their vestments with him. Thus he consecrated Aaron and his vestments, and with him his sons and their vestments.

31Moses said to Aaron and his sons, 'Boil the flesh of the ram at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence, and eat it there, together with the bread in the installation-basket, in accordance with the command: "Aaron and his sons shall eat it." 32The remainder of the flesh and bread you shall destroy by fire. 33You shall not leave the entrance to the Tent of the Presence for seven days, until the day which completes the period of your installation, for it lasts seven days. 34What was done this day followed the LORD's command to make expiation for you. 35You shall stay at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence day and night for seven days, keeping vigil to the LORD, so that you do not die, for so I was commanded.'

36Aaron and his sons did everything that the LORD had commanded through Moses.


  9.

Aaron offers sacrifice.

1On the eighth day Moses summoned Aaron and his sons and the Israelite elders. 2He said to Aaron, 'Take for yourself a bull-calf for a sin-offering and a ram for a whole-offering, both without blemish, and present them before the LORD. 3Then bid the Israelites take a he-goat for a sin-offering, a calf and a lamb, both yearlings without blemish, for a whole-offering, 4and a bull and a ram for shared-offerings to be sacrificed before the LORD, together with a grain-offering mixed with oil. This day the LORD will appear to you.'

5They brought what Moses had commanded to the front of the Tent of the Presence, and all the community approached and stood before the LORD. 6Moses said, 'This is what the LORD has commanded you to do, so that the glory of the LORD may appear to you. 7Come near to the altar,' he said to Aaron; 'prepare your sin-offering and your whole-offering and make expiation for yourself and for your household. Then prepare the offering of the people and make expiation for them, as the LORD has commanded.'

8So Aaron came near to the altar and slaughtered the calf, which was his sin-offering. 9The sons of Aaron presented the blood to him, and he dipped his finger in the blood and put it on the horns of the altar. The rest of the blood he poured out at the base of the altar. 10Part of the sin-offering, the fat, the kidneys, and the long lobe of the liver, he burnt on the altar as the LORD had commanded Moses, 11but the flesh and the skin he destroyed by fire outside the camp. 12Then he slaughtered the whole-offering; his sons handed him the blood, and he flung it against the altar all round. 13They handed him the pieces of the whole-offering and the head, and he burnt them on the altar. 14He washed the entrails and the shins and burnt them on the altar, on top of the whole-offering.

15He then brought forward the offering of the people. He took the he-goat, the people's sin-offering, slaughtered it and performed the rite of the sin-offering as he had previously done for himself. 16He presented the whole-offering and prepared it in the manner prescribed. 17He brought forward the grain-offering, took a handful of it and burnt it on the altar, in addition to the morning whole-offering. 18He slaughtered the bull and the ram, the shared-offerings of the people. His sons handed him the blood, and he flung it against the altar all round. 19But the fatty parts of the bull, the fat-tail of the ram, the fat covering the entrails, and the two kidneys with the fat upon them, and the long lobe of the liver, 20all this fat they first put on the breasts of the animals and then burnt it on the altar. 21Aaron presented the breasts and the right leg as a special gift before the LORD, as Moses had commanded.

22Then Aaron lifted up his hands towards the people and pronounced the blessing over them. He came down from performing the rites of the sin-offering, the whole-offering, and the shared-offerings. 23Moses and Aaron entered the Tent of the Presence, and when they came out, they blessed the people, and the glory of the LORD appeared to all the people. 24Fire came out from before the LORD and consumed the whole-offering and the fatty parts on the altar. All the people saw, and they shouted and fell on their faces.


  10.

The sin of Nadab and Abihu.

1NOW NADAB AND ABIHU, sons of Aaron, took their firepans, put fire in them, threw incense on the fire and presented before the LORD illicit fire which he had not commanded. 2Fire came out from before the LORD and destroyed them; and so they died in the presence of the LORD. . 3Then Moses said to Aaron, 'This is what the LORD meant when he said: Among those who approach me, I must be treated as holy; in the presence of all the people I must be given honour.' Aaron was dumbfounded. . 4Moses sent for Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Aaron's uncle Uzziel, and said to them, 'Come and carry your cousins outside the camp away from the holy place.' . 5They came and carried them away in their tunics outside the camp, as Moses had told them. . 6Moses then said to Aaron and to his sons Eleazar and Ithamar, 'You shall not leave your hair dishevelled or tear your clothes in mourning, lest you die and the LORD be angry with the whole community. Your kinsmen, all the house of Israel, shall weep for the destruction by fire which the LORD has kindled. . 7You shall not leave the entrance to the Tent of the Presence lest you die, because the LORD's anointing oil is on you.' They did as Moses had said.

.

Rules for priests.

8THE LORD SPOKE TO AARON and said: . 9You and your sons with you shall not drink wine or strong drink when you are to enter the Tent of the Presence, lest you die. This is a rule binding on your descendants for all time, . 10to make a distinction between sacred and profane, between clean and unclean, . 11and to teach the Israelites all the decrees which the LORD has spoken to them through Moses.

. 12Moses said to Aaron and his surviving sons Eleazar and Ithamar, 'Take what is left over of the grain-offering out of the food-offerings of the LORD, and eat it without leaven beside the altar; it is most sacred. . 13You shall eat it in a sacred place; it is your due and that of your sons out of the LORD's food-offerings, for so I was commanded. . 14You shall eat the breast of the special gift and the leg of the contribution in a clean place, you and your sons and daughters; for they have been given to you and your children as your due out of the shared-offerings of the Israelites. . 15The leg of the contribution and the breast of the special gift shall be brought, along with the food-offerings of fat, to be presented as a special gift before the LORD, and it shall belong to you and your children together, a due for all time; for so the LORD has commanded.'

. 16Moses made searching inquiry about the goat of the sin-offering and found that it had been burnt. He was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's surviving sons, and said, . 17'Why did you not eat the sin-offering in the sacred place? It is most sacred. It was given to you to take away the guilt of the community by making expiation for them before the LORD. . 18If the blood is not brought within the sacred precincts, you shall eat the sin-offering there as I was commanded.' . 19But Aaron replied to Moses, 'See, they have today presented their sin-offering and their whole-offering before the LORD, and this is what has befallen me; if I eat a sin-offering today, will it be right in the eyes of the LORD?' . 20When Moses heard this, he deemed it right..


  11.

Animals that may be eaten.

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES and Aaron and said, . 2Speak to the Israelites in these words: Of all animals on land these are the creatures you may eat: 3you may eat any animal which has a parted foot or a cloven hoof and also chews the cud; 4those which have only a cloven hoof or only chew the cud you may not eat. These are: the camel, because it chews the cud but has not a cloven hoof; you shall regard it as unclean; 5the rock-badger Or rock-rabbit, because it chews the cud but has not a parted foot; you shall regard it as unclean; 6the hare, because it chews the cud but has not a parted foot; you shall regard it as unclean; 7the pig, because it has a parted foot and a cloven hoof but does not chew the cud; you shall regard it as unclean. 8You shall not eat their flesh or even touch their dead bodies; you shall regard them us unclean.

9Of creatures that live in water these you may eat: all those that have fins and scales, whether in salt water or fresh; 10but all that have neither fins nor scales, whether in salt or fresh water, including both small creatures in shoals and larger creatures, you shall regard as vermin. 11They shall be vermin to you; you shall not eat their flesh, and their dead bodies you shall treat as those of vermin. 12Every creature in the water that has neither fins nor scales shall be vermin to you.

13These are the birds you shall regard as vermin, and for this reason they shall not be eaten: the griffon-vulture Or eagle, the black vulture, and the bearded vulture Or ossifrage, 14the kite and every kind of falcon; 15every kind of crow Or raven, 16the desert-owl, the short-eared owl, the long-eared owl, and every kind of hawk; 17the tawny owl, the fisher-owl, and the screech-owl; 18the little owl, the horned owl, the osprey, 19the stork Or heron every kind of cormorant, the hoopoe, and the bat.

20All teeming winged creatures that go on four legs shall be vermin to you, 21except those which have legs jointed above their feet for leaping on the ground. 22Of these you may eat every kind of great locust, every kind of long-headed locust, every kind of green locust, and every kind of desert locust. 23Every other teeming winged creature that has four legs you shall regard as vermin; 24you would make yourselves unclean with them: whoever Or whatever touches their dead bodies shall be unclean till evening. 25Whoever picks up their dead bodies shall wash his clothes but remain unclean till evening.

26You shall regard as unclean every animal which has a parted foot but has not a cloven hoof and does not chew the cud: whoever Or whatever touches them shall be unclean. 27You shall regard as unclean all four-footed wild animals that go on flat paws; whoever Or whatever touches their dead bodies shall be unclean till evening. 28Whoever takes up their dead bodies shall wash his clothes but remain unclean till evening. You shall regard them as unclean.

29You shall regard these as unclean among creatures that teem on the ground: the mole-rat Or weasel, the jerboa, and every kind of thorn-tailed lizard; 30the gecko, the sand-gecko, the wall-gecko, the great lizard, and the chameleon. 31You shall regard these as unclean among teeming creatures; whoever Or whatever touches them when they are dead shall be unclean till evening. 32Anything on which any of them falls when they are dead shall be unclean, any article of wood or garment or skin or sacking, any article in regular use; it shall be plunged into water but shall remain unclean till evening, when it shall be clean. 33If any of these falls into an earthenware vessel, its contents shall be unclean and it shall be smashed. 34Any food on which water from such a vessel is poured shall be unclean, and any drink in such a vessel shall be unclean. 35Anything on which the dead body of such a creature falls shall be unclean; an oven or a stove shall be broken, for they are unclean and you shall treat them as such; 36but a spring or a cistern where water collects shall remain clean, though whatever Or whoever touches the dead body shall be unclean. 37When any of their dead bodies falls on seed intended for sowing, it remains clean; 38but if the seed has been soaked in water and any dead body falls on it, you shall treat it as unclean.

39When any animal allowed as food dies, all that touch the carcass shall be unclean till evening. 40Whoever eats any of the carcass shall wash his clothes but remain unclean till evening; whoever takes up the carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean till evening. 41All creatures that teem on the ground are vermin; they shall not be eaten. 42All creatures that teem on the ground, crawl on their bellies, go on all fours or have many legs, you shall not eat, because they are vermin which contaminate. 43You shall not contaminate yourselves through any teeming creature. You shall not defile yourselves with them and make yourselves unclean by them. 44For I am the LORD your God; you shall make yourselves holy and keep yourselves holy, because I am holy. You shall not defile yourselves with any teeming creature that creeps on the ground. 45I am the LORD who brought you up from Egypt to become your God. You shall keep yourselves holy, because I am holy.

46This, then, is the law concerning beast and bird, every living creature that swims in the water and every living creature that teems on the land. 47It is to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, between living creatures that may be eaten and living creatures that may not be eaten.


  12.

Purification after childbirth.

1The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 2Speak to the Israelites in these words: When a woman conceives and bears a male child, she shall be unclean for seven days, as in the period of her impurity through menstruation. 3On the eighth day, the child shall have the flesh of his foreskin circumcised. 4The woman shall wait for thirty-three days because her blood requires purification; she shall touch nothing that is holy, and shall not enter the sanctuary till her days of purification are completed. 5If she bears a female child, she shall be unclean for fourteen days as for her menstruation and shall wait for sixty-six days because her blood requires purification. 6When her days of purification are completed for a son or a daughter, she shall bring a yearling ram for a whole-offering and a young pigeon or a turtle-dove for a sin-offering to the priest at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence. 7He shall present it before the LORD and make expiation for her, and she shall be clean from the issue of her blood. This is the law for the woman who bears a child, whether male or female. 8If she cannot afford a ram, she shall bring two turtle-doves or two young pigeons, one for a whole-offering and the other for a sin-offering. The priest shall make expiation for her and she shall be clean.


  13.

Deseases of the skin.

1The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron and said: 2When any man has a discoloration on the skin of his body, a pustule or inflammation, and it may develop into the sores of a malignant skin-disease, he shall be brought to the priest, either to Aaron or to one of his sons. 3The priest shall examine the sore on the skin; if the hairs on the sore have turned white and it appears to be deeper than the skin, it shall be considered the sore of a malignant skin-disease, and the priest, after examination, shall pronounce him ritually unclean. 4But if the inflammation on his skin is white and seems no deeper than the skin, and the hairs have not turned white, the priest shall isolate the affected person for seven days. 5If, when he examines him on the seventh day, the sore remains as it was and has not spread in the skin, he shall keep him in isolation for another seven days. 6When the priest examines him again on the seventh day, if the sore has faded and has not spread in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him ritually clean. It is only a scab; the man shall wash his clothes and so be clean. 7But if the scab spreads on the skin after he has been to the priest to be pronounced ritually clean, the man shall show himself a second time to the priest. 8The priest shall examine him again, and if it continues to spread, he shall pronounce him ritually unclean; it is a malignant skin-disease.

9When anyone has the sores of a malignant skin-disease, he shall be brought to the priest, 10and the priest shall examine him. If there is a white mark on the skin, turning the hairs white, and an ulceration appears in the mark, 11it is a chronic skin-disease on the body, and the priest shall pronounce him ritually unclean; there is no need for isolation because he is unclean already. 12If the skin-disease breaks out and covers the affected person from head to foot as far as the priest can see, 13the priest shall examine him, and if he finds the condition spread all over the body, he shall pronounce him ritually clean. It has all gone white; he is clean. 14But from the moment when raw flesh appears, the man shall be considered unclean. 15When the priest sees it, he shall pronounce him unclean. Raw flesh is to be considered unclean; it is a malignant skin-disease. 16On the other hand, when the raw flesh heals and turns white, the man shall go to the priest, 17who shall examine him, and if the sores have gone white, he shall pronounce him clean. He is ritually clean.

18When a fester appears on the skin and heals up, 19but is followed by a white mark or reddish-white inflammation on the site of the fester, the man shall show himself to the priest. 20The priest shall examine him; if it seems to be beneath the skin and the hairs have turned white, the priest shall pronounce him ritually unclean. It is a malignant skin-disease which has broken out on the site of the fester. 21But if the priest on examination finds that it has no white hairs, is not beneath the skin and has faded, he shall isolate him for seven days. 22If the affection has spread at all in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean; for it is a malignant skin-disease. 23But if the inflammation is no worse and has not spread, it is only the scar of the fester, and the priest shall pronounce him ritually clean.

24Again, in the case of a burn on the skin, if the raw spot left by the burn becomes a reddish-white or white inflammation, 25the priest shall examine it. If the hairs on the inflammation have turned white and it is deeper than the skin, it is a malignant skin-disease which has broken out at the site of the burn. The priest shall pronounce the man ritually unclean; it is a malignant skin-disease. 26But if the priest on examination finds that there is no white hair on the inflammation and it is not beneath the skin and has faded, he shall keep him in isolation for seven days. 27When the priest examines him on the seventh day, if the inflammation has spread at all in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him unclean; it is a malignant skin-disease. 28But if the inflammation is no worse, has not spread and has faded, it is only a mark from the burn. The priest shall pronounce him ritually clean because it is the scar of the burn.

29When a man, or woman, has a sore on the head or chin, 30the priest shall examine it; and if it seems deeper than the skin and the hair is yellow and sparse, the priest shall pronounce him ritually unclean; it is a scurf, a malignant skin-disease of the head or chin. 31But when the priest sees the sore, if it appears to be no deeper than the skin and yet there is no yellow hair on the place, the priest shall isolate the affected person for seven days. 32He shall examine the sore on the seventh day: if the scurf has not spread and there are no yellow hairs on it and it seems no deeper than the skin, 33the man shall get himself shaved except for the scurfy part, and the priest shall keep him in isolation for another seven days. 34The priest shall examine it again on the seventh day, and if the scurf has not spread on the skin and appears to be no deeper than the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean. The man shall wash his clothes and so be ritually clean. 35But if the scurf spreads at all in the skin after the man has been pronounced clean, 36the priest shall examine him again. If it has spread in the skin, the priest need not even look for yellow hair; the man is unclean. 37If, however, the scurf remains as it was but black hair has begun to grow on it, it has healed. The man is ritually clean and the priest shall pronounce him so.

38When a man, or woman, has inflamed patches on the skin and they are white, 39the priest shall examine them. If they are white and fading, it is dull-white leprosy that has broken out on the skin. The man is ritually clean.

40When a man's hair falls out from his head, he is bald behind but not ritually unclean. 41If the hair falls out from the front of the scalp, he is bald on the forehead but clean. 42But if on the bald patch behind or on the forehead there is a reddish-white sore, it is a malignant skin-disease breaking out on those parts. 43The priest shall examine him, and if the discoloured sore on the bald patch behind or on the forehead is reddish-white, similar in appearance to a malignant skin-disease on the body, 44the man is suffering from such a disease, he is ritually unclean and the priest must not fail to pronounce him so. The symptoms are in this case on his head.

45One who suffers from a malignant skin-disease shall wear his clothes torn, leave his hair dishevelled, conceal his upper lip, and cry, 'Unclean, unclean.' 46So long as the sore persists, he shall be considered ritually unclean. The man is unclean: he shall live apart and must stay outside the settlement.

Mildew.

47When there is a stain of mould, whether in a garment of wool or linen, 48or in the warp or weft of linen or wool, or in a skin or anything made of skin; 49if the stain is greenish or reddish in the garment or skin, or in the warp or weft, or in anything made of skin, it is a stain of mould which must he shown to the priest. 50The priest shall examine it and put the stained material aside for seven days. 51On the seventh day he shall examine it again. If the stain has spread in the garment, warp, weft, or skin, whatever the use of the skin, the stain is a rotting mould: it is ritually unclean. 52He shall burn the garment or the warp or weft, whether wool or linen, or anything of skin which is stained; because it is a rotting mould, it must be destroyed by fire. 53But if the priest sees that the stain has not spread in the garment, warp or weft, or anything made of skin, 54he shall give orders for the stained material to be washed, and then he shall put it aside for another seven days. 55After it has been washed the priest shall examine the stain; if it has not changed its appearance, although it has not spread, it is unclean and you shall destroy it by fire, whether the rot is on the right side or the wrong. 56If the priest examines it and finds the stain faded after being washed, he shall tear it out of the garment, skin, warp, or weft. 57If, however, the stain reappears in the garment, warp or weft, or in anything of skin, it is breaking out afresh and you shall destroy by fire whatever is stained. 58If you wash the garment, warp, weft, or anything of skin and the stain disappears, it shall be washed a second time and then it shall be ritually clean.

59This is the law concerning stain of mould in a garment of wool or linen, in warp or weft, or in anything made of skin; by it they shall be pronounced clean or unclean.


  14.

Skin deseases: purification after cure.

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES and said: 2This is the law concerning a man suffering from a malignant skin-disease. On the day when he is to be cleansed he shall be brought to the priest. 3The priest shall go outside the camp and examine him. If the man is healed of his disease, 4then the priest shall order two clean small birds to be brought alive for the man who is to be cleansed, together with cedar-wood, scarlet thread, and marjoram Or hyssop. 5He shall order one of the birds to be killed over an earthenware bowl containing fresh water. 6He shall then take the living bird and the cedar-wood, scarlet thread, and marjoram and dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that has been killed over the fresh water. 7He shall sprinkle the blood seven times on the man who is to be cleansed from his skin-disease and so cleanse him; the living bird he shall release to fly away over the open country. 8The man to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, shave off all his hair, bathe in water and so be ritually clean. He may then enter the camp but must stay outside his tent for seven days. 9On the seventh day he shall shave off all the hair on his head, his beard, and his eyebrows, and then shave the rest of his hair, wash his clothes and bathe in water; then he shall be ritually clean.

10On the eighth day he shall bring two yearling rams and one yearling ewe, all three without blemish, a grain-offering of three tenths of an ephah of flour mixed with oil, and one log of oil. 11The officiating priest shall place the man to be cleansed and his offerings before the LORD at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence. 12He shall then take one of the rams and offer it with the log of oil as a guilt-offering, presenting them as a special gift before the LORD. 13The ram shall be slaughtered where the sin-offerings and the whole-offerings are slaughtered, within the sacred precincts, because the guilt-offering, like the sin-offering, belongs to the priest. It is most sacred. 14The priest shall then take some of the blood of the guilt-offering and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the man to be cleansed, and on his right thumb and the big toe of his right foot. 15He shall next take the log of oil and pour some of it on the palm of his own left hand, 16dip his right forefinger into the oil on his left palm and sprinkle some of it with his finger seven times before the LORD. 17He shall then put some of the oil remaining on his palm on the lobe of the right ear of the man to be cleansed, on his right thumb and on the big toe of his right foot, on top of the blood of the guilt-offering. 18The remainder of the oil on the priest's palm shall be put upon the head of the man to be cleansed, and thus the priest shall make expiation for him before the LORD. 19The priest shall then perform the sin-offering and make expiation for the uncleanness of the man who is to be cleansed. 20After this he shall slaughter the whole-offering and offer it and the grain-offering on the altar. Thus the priest shall make expiation for him, and then he shall be clean.

21If the man is poor and cannot afford these offerings, he shall bring one young ram as a guilt-offering to be a special gift making expiation for him, and a grain-offering of a tenth of an ephah of flour mixed with oil, and a log of oil, 22also two turtle-doves or two young pigeons, whichever he can afford, one for a sin-offering and the other for a whole-offering. 23He shall bring them to the priest for his cleansing on the eighth day, at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence before the LORD. 24The priest shall take the ram for the guilt-offering and the log of oil, and shall present them as a special gift before the LORD. 25The ram for the guilt-offering shall then be slaughtered, and the priest shall take some of the blood of the guilt-offering, and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the man to be cleansed and on his right thumb and on the big toe of his right foot. 26He shall pour some of the oil on the palm of his own left hand 27and sprinkle some of it with his right forefinger seven times before the LORD. 28He shall then put some of the oil remaining on his palm on the lobe of the right ear of the man to be cleansed, and on his right thumb and on the big toe of his right foot exactly where the blood of the guilt-offering was put. 29The remainder of the oil on the priest's palm shall be put upon the head of the man to be cleansed to make expiation for him before the LORD. 30Of the birds which the man has been able to afford, turtle-doves or young pigeons, whichever it may be, 31the priest shall deal with one as a sin-offering and with the other as a whole-offering and shall make the grain-offering with them. Thus the priest shall make expiation before the LORD for the man who is to be cleansed. 32This is the law for the man with a malignant skin-disease who cannot afford the regular offering for his cleansing.

Mildew on dwellings.

33The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron and said: 34When you have entered the land of Canaan which I give you to occupy, if I inflict a fungous infection upon a house in the land you have occupied, 35its owner shall come and report to the priest that there appears to him to be a patch of infection in his house. 36The priest shall order the house to be cleared before he goes in to examine the infection, or everything in it will become. unclean. After this the priest shall go in to inspect the house. 37If on inspection he finds the patch on the walls consists of greenish or reddish depressions, apparently going deeper than the surface, 38he shall go out of the house and, standing at the entrance, shall put it in quarantine for seven days. 39On the seventh day he shall come back and inspect the house, and if the patch has spread in the walls, 40he shall order the infected stones to be pulled out and thrown away outside the city in an unclean place. 41He shall then have the house scraped inside throughout, and all the daub Or mud they have scraped off shall be tipped outside the city in an unclean place. 42They shall take fresh stones to replace the others and replaster the house with fresh daub.

43If the infection reappears in the house and spreads after the stones have been pulled out and the house scraped and redaubed, 44the priest shall come and inspect it. If the infection has spread in the house, it is a corrosive growth; the house is unclean. 45The house shall be demolished, stones, timber, and daub, and it shall all be taken away outside the city to an unclean place. 46Anyone who has entered the house during the time it has been in quarantine shall be unclean till evening. 47Anyone who has slept or eaten a meal in the house shall wash his clothes. 48But if, when the priest goes into the house and inspects it, he finds that the infection has not spread after the redaubing, then he shall pronounce the house ritually clean, because the infection has been cured.

49In order to rid the house of impurity, he shall take two small birds, cedar-wood, scarlet thread, and marjoram. 50He shall kill one of the birds over an earthenware bowl containing fresh water. 51He shall then take the cedar-wood, marjoram, and scarlet thread, together with the living bird, dip them in the blood of the bird that has been killed and in the fresh water, and sprinkle the house seven times. 52Thus he shall purify the house, using the blood of the bird, the fresh water, the living bird, the cedar-wood, the marjoram, and the scarlet thread. 53He shall set the living bird free outside the city to fly away over the open country, and make expiation for the house; and then it shall be clean.

54This is the law for all malignant skin-diseases, and for scurf, 55for mould in clothes and fungus in houses, 56for a discoloration of the skin, scab, and inflammation, 57to declare when these are pronounced unclean and when clean. This is the law for skin-disease, mould, and fungus.


  15.

Bodily cleanliness.

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES and Aaron and said, 2Speak to the Israelites and say to them: When any man has a discharge from his body, the discharge is ritually unclean. 3This is the law concerning the uncleanness due to his discharge whether it continues or has been stopped; in either case he is unclean.

4Every bed on which the man with a discharge lies down shall be ritually unclean, and everything on which he sits shall be unclean. 5Any man who touches the bed shall wash his clothes, bathe in water and remain unclean till evening. 6Whoever sits on anything on which the man with a discharge has sat shall wash his clothes, bathe in water and remain unclean till evening. 7Whoever touches the body of the man with a discharge shall wash his clothes, bathe in water and remain unclean till evening. 8If the man spits on one who is ritually clean, the latter shall wash his clothes, bathe in water and remain unclean till evening. 9Everything on which the man sits when riding shall be unclean. 10Whoever touches anything that has been under him shall be unclean till evening, and whoever handles such things shall wash his clothes, bathe in water and remain unclean till evening. 11Anyone whom the man with a discharge touches without having rinsed his hands in water shall wash his clothes, bathe in water and remain unclean till evening. 12Any earthenware bowl touched by the man shall be smashed, and every wooden bowl shall be rinsed with water.

13When the man is cleansed from his discharge, he shall reckon seven days to his cleansing, wash his clothes, bathe his body in fresh water and be ritually clean. 14On the eighth day he shall obtain two turtle-doves or two young pigeons and, coming before the LORD at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence, shall give them to the priest. 15The priest shall deal with one as a sin-offering and the other as a whole-offering, and shall make for him before the LORD the expiation required by the discharge.

16When a man has emitted semen, he shall bathe his whole body in water and be unclean till evening. 17Every piece of clothing or skin on which there is any semen shall be washed and remain unclean till evening. 18This applies also to the woman with whom a man has had intercourse; they shall both bathe themselves in water and remain unclean till evening.

19When a woman has a discharge of blood, her impurity shall last for seven days; anyone who touches her shall be unclean till evening. 20Everything on which she lies or sits during her impurity shall be unclean. 21Anyone who touches her bed shall wash his clothes, bathe in water and remain unclean till evening. 22Whoever touches anything on which she sits shall wash his clothes, bathe in water and remain unclean till evening. 23If he is on the bed or seat where she is sitting, by touching it he shall become unclean till evening. 24If a man goes so far as to have intercourse with her and any of her discharge gets on to him, then he shall be unclean for seven days, and every bed on which he lies down shall be unclean.

25When a woman has a prolonged discharge of blood not at the time of her menstruation, or when her discharge continues beyond the period of menstruation, her impurity shall last all the time of her discharge; she shall be unclean as during the period of her menstruation. 26Any bed on which she lies during the time of her discharge shall be like that which she used during menstruation, and everything on which she sits shall be unclean as in her menstrual uncleanness. 27Every person who touches them shall be unclean; he shall wash his clothes, bathe in water and remain unclean till evening. 28If she is cleansed from her discharge, she shall reckon seven days and after that she shall be ritually clean. 29On the eighth day she shall obtain two turtle-doves or two young pigeons and bring them to the priest at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence. 30The priest shall deal with one as a sin-offering and with the other as a whole-offering, and make for her before the LORD the expiation required by her unclean discharge.

31In this way you shall warn the Israelites against uncleanness, in order that they may not bring uncleanness upon the Tabernacle where I dwell among them, and so die.

32This is the law for the man who has a discharge, or who has an emission of semen and is thereby unclean, 33and for the woman who is suffering her menstruation—for everyone, male or female, who has a discharge, and for the man who has intercourse with a woman who is unclean.


  16.

The Day of Atonement.

1THE LORD SPOKE T0 MOSES after the death of Aaron's two sons, who died when they offered illicit fire before the LORD. 2He said to him: Tell your brother Aaron that he must not enter the sanctuary within the Veil, in front of the cover over the Ark, except at the appointed time, on pain of death; for I appear in the cloud above the cover. 3When Aaron enters the sanctuary, this is what he shall do. He shall bring a young bull for a sin-offering and a ram for a whole-offering. 4He shall wear a sacred linen tunic and linen drawers to cover himself, and he shall put a linen sash round his waist and wind a linen turban round his head; all these are sacred vestments, and he shall bathe in water before putting them on. 5He shall take from the community of the Israelites two he-goats for a sin-offering and a ram for a whole-offering. 6He shall present the bull as a sin-offering and make expiation for himself and his household. 7Then he shall take the two he-goats and set them before the LORD at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence. 8He shall cast lots over the two goats, one to be for the LORD and the other for the Precipice Or for Azazel. 9He shall present the goat on which the lot for the LORD has fallen and deal with it as a sin-offering; 10but the goat on which the lot for the Precipice has fallen shall be made to stand alive before the LORD, for expiation to be made over it before it is driven away into the wilderness to the Precipice.

11Aaron shall present his bull as a sin-offering, making expiation for himself and his household, and then slaughter the bull as a sin-offering. 12He shall take a firepan full of glowing embers from the altar before the LORD, and two handfuls of powdered fragrant incense, and bring them within the Veil. 13He shall put the incense on the fire before the LORD, and the cloud of incense will hide the cover over the Tokens so that he shall not die. 14He shall take some of the bull's blood and sprinkle it with his finger both on the surface of the cover, eastwards, and seven times in front of the cover.

15He shall then slaughter the people's goat as a sin-offering, bring its blood within the Veil and do with its blood as he did with the bull's blood, sprinkling it on the cover and in front of it. 16He shall make for the sanctuary the expiation required by the ritual uncleanness of the Israelites and their acts of rebellion, that is by all their sins; and he shall do the same for the Tent of the Presence, which dwells among them in the midst of all their uncleanness. 17No other man shall be within the Tent of the Presence from the time when he enters the sanctuary to make expiation until he comes out, and he shall make expiation for himself, his household, and the whole assembly of Israel.

18He shall then come out to the altar which is before the LORD and make expiation for it. He shall take some of the bull's blood and some of the goat's blood and put it all over the horns of the altar; 19he shall sprinkle some of the blood on the altar with his finger seven times. So he shall purify it from all the uncleanness of the Israelites and hallow it.

The Scapegoat.

20When Aaron has finished making expiation for the sanctuary, for the Tent of the Presence, and for the altar, he shall bring forward the live goat. 21He shall lay both his hands on its head and confess over it all the iniquities of the Israelites and all their acts of rebellion, that is all their sins; he shall lay them on the head of the goat and send it away into the wilderness in charge of a man who is waiting ready. 22The goat shall carry all their iniquities upon itself into some barren waste and the man shall let it go, there in the wilderness.

23Aaron shall then enter the Tent of the Presence, take off the linen clothes which he had put on when he entered the sanctuary, and leave them there. 24He shall bathe in water in a consecrated place and put on his vestments; then he shall go out and perform his own whole-offering and that of the people, thus making expiation for himself and for the people. 25He shall burn the fat of the sin-offering upon the altar. 26The man who drove the goat away to the Precipice shall wash his clothes and bathe in water, and not till then may he enter the camp. 27The two sin-offerings, the bull and the goat, the blood of which was brought within the Veil to make expiation in the sanctuary, shall be taken outside the camp and destroyed by fire—skin, flesh, and offal. 28The man who burns them shall wash his clothes and bathe in water, and not till then may he enter the camp.

Day of Atonement: observation.

29This shall become a rule binding on you for all time. On the tenth day of the seventh month you shall mortify yourselves; you shall do no work, whether native Israelite or alien settler, 30because on this day expiation shall be made on your behalf to cleanse you, and so make you clean before the LORD from all your sins. 31This is a sabbath of sacred rest for you, and you shall mortify yourselves; it is a rule binding for all time. 32Expiation shall be made by the priest duly anointed and installed to serve in succession to his father; he shall put on the sacred linen clothes 33and shall make expiation for the holy sanctuary, the Tent of the Presence, and the altar, on behalf of the priests and the whole assembly of the people. 34This shall become a rule binding on you for all time, to make for the Israelites once a year the expiation required by all their sins.


  17.

Blood.

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES and said, 2Speak to Aaron, his sons, and all the Israelites in these words: This is what the LORD has commanded. 3Any Israelite who slaughters an ox, a sheep, or a goat, either inside or outside the camp, 4and does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of the Presence to present it as an offering to the LORD before the Tabernacle of the LORD shall be held guilty of bloodshed: that man has shed blood and shall be cut off from his people. 5The purpose is that the Israelites should bring to the LORD the animals which they slaughter in the open country; they shall bring them to the priest at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence and sacrifice them as shared-offerings to the LORD. 6The priest shall fling the blood against the altar of the LORD at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence, and burn the fat as a soothing odour to the LORD. 7They shall no longer sacrifice their slaughtered beasts to the demons Or satyrs whom they wantonly follow. This shall be a rule binding on them and their descendants for all time.

8You shall say to them: Any Israelite or alien settled in Israel who offers a whole-offering or a sacrifice 9and does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of the Presence to sacrifice it to the LORD shall be cut off from his father's kin.

10If any Israelite or alien settled in Israel eats any blood, I will set my face against the eater and cut him off from his people, 11because the life of a creature is the blood, and I appoint it to make expiation on the altar for yourselves: it is the blood, that is the life, that makes expiation. 12Therefore I have told the Israelites that neither you, nor any alien settled among you, shall eat blood.

13Any Israelite or alien settled in Israel who hunts beasts or birds that may lawfully be eaten shall drain out the blood and cover it with earth, 14because the life of every living creature is the blood, and I have forbidden the Israelites to eat the blood of any creature, because the life of every creature is its blood: every man who eats it shall be cut off.

15Every person, native or alien, who eats that which has died a natural death or has been mauled by wild beasts shall wash his clothes and bathe in water, and remain ritually unclean till evening; then he shall be clean. 16If he does not wash his clothes and bathe his body, he must accept responsibility.


  18.

Forbidden sexual practices.

1THE LORD SPOKE T0 MOSES and said, 2Speak to the Israelites in these words: I am the LORD your God. 3You shall not do as they do in Egypt where you once dwelt, nor shall you do as they do in the land of Canaan to which I am bringing you; you shall not conform to their institutions. 4You must keep my laws and conform to my institutions without fail: I am the LORD your God. 5You shall observe my institutions and my laws: the man who keeps them shall have life through them. I am the LORD.

6No man shall approach a blood-relation for intercourse. I am the LORD. 7You shall not bring shame on your father by intercourse with your mother: she is your mother; you shall not bring shame upon her. 8You shall not have intercourse with your father's wife: that is to bring shame upon your father. 9You shall not have intercourse with your sister, your father's daughter, or your mother's daughter, whether brought up in the family or in another home; you shall not bring shame upon them. 10You shall not have intercourse with your son's daughter or your daughter's daughter: that is to bring shame upon yourself. 11You shall not have intercourse with a daughter of your father's wife, begotten by your father: she is your sister, and you shall not bring shame upon her. 12You shall not have intercourse with your father's sister: she is a blood-relation of your father. 13You shall not have intercourse with your mother's sister: she is a blood-relation of your mother. 14You shall not bring shame upon your father's' brother by approaching his wife: she is your aunt. 15You shall not have intercourse with your daughter-in-law: she is your son's wife; you shall not bring shame upon her. 16You shall not have intercourse with your brother's wife: that is to bring shame upon him. 17You shall not have intercourse with both a woman and her daughter, nor shall you take her son's daughter or her daughter's daughter to have intercourse with them: they are her blood-relations, and such conduct is lewdness. 18You shall not take a woman who is your wife's sister to make her a rival-wife, and to have intercourse with her during her sister's lifetime.

19You shall not approach a woman to have intercourse with her during her period of menstruation. 20You shall not have sexual intercourse with the wife of your fellow-countryman and so make yourself unclean with her. 21You shall not surrender any of your children to Molech and thus profane the name of your God: I am the LORD. 22You shall not lie with a man as with a woman: that is an abomination. 23You shall not have sexual intercourse with any beast to make yourself unclean with it, nor shall a woman submit herself to intercourse with a beast: that is a violation of nature. 24You shall not make yourselves unclean in any of these ways; for in these ways the heathen, whom I am driving out before you, made themselves unclean. 25This is how the land became unclean, and I punished it for its iniquity so that it spewed out its inhabitants. 26You, unlike them, shall keep my laws and my rules: none of you, whether natives or aliens settled among you, shall do any of these abominable things. 27The people who were there before you did these abominable things and the land became unclean. 28So the land will not spew you out for making it unclean as it spewed them out; 29for anyone who does any of these abominable things shall be cut off from his people. 30Observe my charge, therefore, and follow none of the abominable institutions customary before your time; do not make yourselves unclean with them. I am the LORD your God.


  19.

Laws of Holiness and Justice.

1THE LORD SPOKE To MOSES and said, 2Speak to all the community of the Israelites in these words: You shall be holy, because I, the LORD your God, am holy. 3You shall revere, every man of you, his mother and his father. You shall keep my sabbaths. I am the LORD your God. 4Do not resort to idols; you shall not make gods of cast metal for yourselves. I am the LORD your God.

5When you sacrifice a shared-offering to the LORD, you shall slaughter it so as to win acceptance for yourselves. 6It must be eaten on the day of your sacrifice or the next day. Whatever is left over till the third day shall be destroyed by fire; it is tainted, 7and if any of it is eaten on the third day, it
will not be acceptable. 8He who eats it must accept responsibility, because he has profaned the holy-gift to the LORD: that person shall be cut off from his father's kin.

9When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap right into the edges of your field; neither shall you glean the loose ears of your crop; 10you shall not completely strip your vineyard nor glean the fallen grapes. You shall leave them for the poor and the alien. I am the LORD your God.

11You shall not steal; you shall not cheat or deceive a fellow-countryman. 12You shall not swear in my name with intent to deceive and thus profane the name of your God. I am the LORD. 13You shall not oppress your neighbour, nor rob him. You shall not keep back a hired man's wages till next morning. 14You shall not treat the deaf with contempt, nor put an obstruction in the way of the blind. You shall fear your God. I am the LORD.

15You shall not pervert justice, either by favouring the poor or by subservience to the great. You shall judge your fellow-countryman with strict justice. 16You shall not go about spreading slander among your father's kin, nor take sides against your neighbour on a capital charge. I am the LORD. 17You shall not nurse hatred against your brother. You shall reprove your fellow-countryman frankly and so you will have no share in his guilt Or and for that you will incur no blame. 18You shall not seek revenge, or cherish anger towards your kinsfolk; you shall love your neighbour as a man like yourself. I am the LORD.

19You shall keep my rules. You shall not allow two different kinds of beast to mate together. You shall not plant your field with two kinds of seed. You shall not put on a garment woven with two kinds of yarn.

20When a man has intercourse with a slave-girl who has been assigned to another man and neither ransomed nor given her freedom, inquiry shall be made. They shall not be put to death, because she has not been freed. 21The man shall bring his guilt-offering, a ram, to the LORD to the entrance of the Tent of the Presence, 22and with it the priest shall make expiation for him before the LORD for his sin, and he shall be forgiven the sin he has committed.

23When you enter the land, and plant any kind of tree for food, you shall treat it as bearing forbidden fruit. For three years it shall be forbidden and may not be eaten. 24In the fourth year all its fruit shall be a holy-gift to the LORD, and this releases it for use. 25In the fifth year you may eat its fruit, and thus the yield it gives you shall be increased. I am the LORD your God.

26You shall not eat meat with the blood in it. You shall not practise divination or soothsaying. 27You shall not round off your hair from side to side, and you shall not shave the edge of your beards. 28You shall not gash yourselves in mourning for the dead; you shall not tattoo yourselves. I am the LORD.

29Do not prostitute your daughter and so make her a whore; thus the land shall not play the prostitute and be full of lewdness. 30You shall keep my sabbaths, and revere my sanctuary. I am the LORD.

31Do not resort to ghosts and spirits, nor make yourselves unclean by seeking them out. I am the LORD your God.

32You shall rise in the presence of grey hairs, give honour to the aged, and fear your God. I am the LORD.

33When an alien settles with you in your land, you shall not oppress him. 34He shall be treated as a native born among you, and you shall love him as a man like yourself, because you were aliens in Egypt. I am the LORD your God.

35You shall not pervert justice in measurement of length, weight, or quantity. 36You shall have true scales, true weights, true measures dry and liquid. I am the LORD your God who brought you out of Egypt. 37You shall observe all my rules and laws and carry them out. I am the LORD.


  20.

Penalties.

1The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 2Say to the Israelites: Any Israelite or alien settled in Israel who gives any of his children to Molech shall be put to death: the common people shall stone him. 3I, for my part, set my face against that man and cut him off from his people, because he has given a child of his to Molech, thus making my sanctuary unclean and profaning my holy name. 4If the common people connive at it when a man has given a child of his to Molech and do not put him to death, 5I will set my face against man and family, and both him and all who follow him in his wanton following after Molech Or in his lusting after human sacrifice, I will cut off from their people.

6I will set my face against the man who wantonly resorts to ghosts and spirits, and I will cut that person off from his people. 7Hallow yourselves and be holy, because I the LORD your God am holy. 8You shall keep my rules and obey them: I am the LORD who hallows you.

9When any man reviles his father and his mother, he shall be put to death. He has reviled his father and his mother; his blood shall be on his own head. 10If a man commits adultery with his neighbour's wife, both adulterer and adulteress shall be put to death. 11The man who has intercourse with his father's wife has brought shame on his father. They shall both be put to death; their blood shall be on their own heads. 12If a man has intercourse with his daughter-in-law, they shall both be put to death. Their deed is a violation of nature; their blood shall be on their own heads. 13If a man has intercourse with a man as with a woman, they both commit an abomination. They shall be put to death; their blood shall be on their own heads. 14If a man takes both a woman and her mother, that is lewdness. Both he and they shall be burnt; thus there shall be no lewdness in your midst. 15A man who has sexual intercourse with any beast shall be put to death, and you shall kill the beast. 16If a woman approaches any animal to have intercourse with it, you shall kill both woman and beast. They shall be put to death; their blood shall be on their own heads. 17If a man takes his sister, his father's daughter or his mother's daughter, and they see one another naked, it is a scandalous disgrace. They shall be cut off in the presence of their people. The man has had intercourse with his sister and he shall accept responsibility. 18If a man lies with a woman during her monthly period and brings shame upon her, he has exposed her discharge and she has uncovered the source of her discharge; they shall both be cut off from their people. 19You shall not have intercourse with your mother's sister or your father's sister: it is the exposure of a blood-relation. They shall accept responsibility. 20A man who has intercourse with his uncle's wife has brought shame upon his uncle. They shall accept responsibility for their sin and shall be proscribed and put to death. 21If a man takes his brother's wife, it is impurity. He has brought shame upon his brother; they shall be proscribed.

22You shall keep all my rules and my laws and carry them out, that the land into which I am bringing you to live may not spew you out. 23You shall not conform to the institutions of the nations whom I am driving out before you: they did all these things and I abhorred them, 24and I told you that you should occupy their land, and I would give you possession of it, a land flowing with milk and honey. I am the LORD your God: I have made a clear separation between you and the nations, 25and you shall make a clear separation between clean beasts and unclean beasts and between unclean and clean birds. You shall not make yourselves vile through beast or bird or anything that creeps on the ground, for I have made a clear separation between them and you, declaring them unclean. 26You shall be holy to me, because I the LORD am holy. I have made a clear separation between you and the heathen, that you may belong to me. 27Any man or woman among you who calls up ghosts or spirits shall be put to death. The people shall stone them; their blood shall be on their own heads.


  21.

Holiness of priests.

1THE LORD SAID TO MOSES, Say to the priests, the sons of Aaron: A priest shall not render himself unclean for the death of any of his kin 2except for a near blood-relation, that is for mother, father, son, daughter, brother, 3or full sister who is unmarried and a virgin; 4nor shall he make himself unclean for any married woman for any married woman: prob. rdg, Heb husband among his father's kin, and so profane himself.

5Priests shall not make bald patches on their heads as a sign of mourning, nor cut the edges of their beards, nor gash their bodies. 6They shall be holy to their God, and they shall not profane the name of their God, because they present the food-offerings of the LORD, the food of their God, and they shall be holy. 7A priest shall not marry a prostitute or a girl who has lost her virginity, nor shall he marry a woman divorced from her husband; for he is holy to his God. 8You shall keep him holy because he presents the food of your God; you shall regard him as holy because I the LORD, I who hallow them, am holy. 9When a priest's daughter profanes herself by becoming a prostitute, she profanes her father. She shall be burnt to death.

10The high priest, the one among his fellows who has had the anointing oil poured on his head and has been consecrated to wear the vestments, shall neither leave his hair dishevelled nor tear his clothes. 11He shall not enter the place where any man's dead body lies; not even for his father or his mother shall he render himself unclean. 12He shall not go out of the sanctuary for fear that he dishonour the sanctuary of his God, because the consecration of the anointing oil of his God is upon him. I am the LORD. 13He shall marry a woman who is still a virgin. 14He shall not marry a widow, a divorced woman, a woman who has lost her virginity, or a prostitute, but only a virgin from his father's kin; 15he shall not dishonour his descendants among his father's kin, for I am the LORD who hallows him.

16The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 17Speak to Aaron in these words: No man among your descendants for all time who has any physical defect shall come and present the food of his God. 18No man with a defect shall come, whether a blind man, a lame man, a man stunted or overgrown, 19a man deformed in foot or hand, 20or with mis-shapen brows or a film over his eye or a discharge from it, a man who has a scab or eruption or has had a testicle ruptured. 21No descendant of Aaron the priest who has any defect in his body shall approach to present the food-offerings of the LORD; because he has a defect he shall not approach to present the food of his God. 22He may eat the bread of God both from the holy-gifts and from the holiest of holy-gifts, 23but he shall not come up to the Veil nor approach the altar, because he has a defect in his body. Thus he shall not profane my sanctuaries, because I am the LORD who hallows them.

24Thus did Moses speak to Aaron and his sons and to all the Israelites.


  22.

Holiness of offerings.

1The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 2Tell Aaron and his sons that they must be careful in the handling of the holy-gifts of the Israelites which they hallow to me, lest they profane my holy name. I am the LORD. 3Say to them: Any man of your descent for all time who while unclean approaches the holy-gifts which the Israelites hallow to the LORD shall be cut off from my presence. I am the LORD. 4No man descended from Aaron who suffers from a malignant skin-disease, or has a discharge, shall eat of the holy-gifts until he is cleansed. A man who touches anything which makes him unclean or who has an emission of semen, 5a man who touches any vermin which makes him unclean or any human being who makes him unclean: 6any person who touches such a thing shall be unclean till sunset and unless he washes his body shall not eat of the holy-gifts. 7When the sun goes down, he shall be clean, and after that he may eat from the holy-gifts, because they are his food. 8He shall not eat an animal that has died a natural death or has been mauled by wild beasts, thereby making himself unclean. I am the LORD. 9The priests shall observe my charge, lest they make themselves guilty and die for profaning my name. I am the LORD who hallows them. 10No unqualified person may eat any holy-gift; nor may a stranger lodging with a priest or a hired man eat a holy-gift. 11A slave bought by a priest with his own money may do so, and slaves born in his household may also share his food. 12When a priest's daughter marries an unqualified person, she shall not eat any of the contributions of holy-gifts; 13but if she is widowed or divorced and is childless and comes back to her father's house as in her childhood, she shall share her father's food. No unqualified person may eat any of it.

14When a man inadvertently eats a holy-gift, he shall make good the holy-gift to the priest, adding a fifth to its value. 15The priests shall not profane the holy-gifts of the Israelites which they set aside for the LORD; 16they shall not let men eat their holy-gifts and so incur guilt and its penalty, because I am the LORD who hallows them.

17The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 18Speak to Aaron and his sons and to all the Israelites in these words: When any man of the house of Israel or any alien in Israel presents, whether in fulfilment of a vow or for a freewill offering, such an offering as is presented to the LORD for a whole-offering 19so as to win acceptance for yourselves, it shall be a male without defect, of cattle, sheep, or goats. 20You shall not present anything which is defective, because it will not be acceptable on your behalf. 21When a man presents a shared-offering to the LORD, whether cattle or sheep, to fulfil a special fulfil a special: or discharge a vow or as a freewill offering, if it is to be acceptable it must be perfect; there shall be no defect in it. 22You shall present to the LORD nothing blind, disabled, mutilated, with running sore, scab, or eruption, nor set any such creature on the altar as a food-offering to the LORD. 23If a bull or a sheep is overgrown or stunted, you may make of it a freewill offering, but it will not be acceptable in fulfilment of a vow. 24If its testicles have been crushed or bruised, torn or cut, you shall not present it to the LORD, this is forbidden in your land.

25You shall not procure any such creature from a foreigner and present it as food for your God. Their deformity is inherent in them, a permanent defect, and they will not be acceptable on your behalf.

26The LORD spoke to Moses and said: 27When a calf, a lamb, or a kid is born, it must not be taken from its mother for seven days. From the eighth day onwards it will be acceptable when offered as a food-offering to the LORD. 28You shall not slaughter a cow or sheep at the same time as its young. 29When you make a thank-offering to the LORD, you shall sacrifice it so as to win acceptance for yourselves; 30it shall be eaten that same day, and none be left till morning. I am the LORD.

31You shall observe my commandments and perform them. I am the LORD. 32You shall not profane my holy name ; I will be hallowed among the Israelites. I am the LORD who hallows you, 33who brought you out of Egypt to become your God. I am the LORD.


  23.

THE FESTIVALS: The Sabbath.

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES AND SAID, 2Speak to the Israelites in these words: These are the appointed seasons of the LORD, and you shall proclaim them as sacred assemblies; these are my appointed seasons. 3On six days work may be done, but every seventh day is a sabbath of sacred rest, a day of sacred assembly, on which you shall do no work. Wherever you live, it is the LORD's sabbath.

4These are the appointed seasons of the LORD, the sacred assemblies which you shall proclaim in their appointed order.

The festival of Passover and Unleavened Bread. - Nu.28.16-25

5In the first month on the fourteenth day between dusk and dark is the LORD's Passover. 6On the fifteenth day of this month begins the LORD's pilgrim-feast of Unleavened Bread; for seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes. 7On the first day there shall be a sacred assembly; you shall not do your daily work. 8For seven days you shall present your food-offerings to the LORD. On the seventh day also there shall be a sacred assembly; you shall not do your daily work.

9The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 10Speak to the Israelites in these words: When you enter the land which I give you, and you reap its harvest, you shall bring the first sheaf of your harvest to the priest. 11He shall present the sheaf as a special gift before the LORD on Or from the day after the sabbath, so as to gain acceptance for yourselves. 12On the day you present the sheaf, you shall prepare a perfect yearling ram for a whole-offering to the LORD, 13with the proper grain-offering, two tenths of an ephah of flour mixed with oil, as a food-offering to the LORD, of soothing odour, and also with the proper drink-offering, a quarter of a hin of wine. 14You shall eat neither bread, nor grain, parched or fully ripened, during that day, the day on which you bring your God his offering; this is a rule binding on your descendants for all time wherever you live.

Harvest. - Nu.28.26-31

15From the day after the sabbath, the day on which you bring your sheaf as a special gift, you shall count seven full weeks. 16The day after the seventh sabbath will make fifty days, and then you shall present to the LORD a grain-offering from the new crop. 17You shall bring from your homes two loaves as a special gift; they shall contain two tenths of an ephah of flour and shall be baked with leaven. They are the LORD's firstfruits. 18In addition to the bread you shall present seven perfect yearling sheep, one young bull, and two rams. They shall be a whole-offering to the LORD with the proper grain-offering and the proper drink-offering, a food-offering of soothing odour to the LORD. 19You shall also prepare one he-goat for a sin-offering and two yearling sheep for a shared-offering, 20and the priest shall present them in addition to the bread of the firstfruits as a special gift before the LORD. They shall be a holy-gift to the LORD for the priest. 21On that same day you shall proclaim a sacred assembly for yourselves; you shall not do your daily work. This is a rule binding on your descendants for all time wherever you live.

22When you reap the harvest in your land, you shall not reap right into the edges of your field, neither shall you glean the fallen ears. You shall leave them for the poor and for the alien. I am the LORD your God.

New Year. - Nu.29.1-6

23The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 24Speak to the Israelites in these words: In the seventh month you shall keep the first day as a sacred rest, a day of remembrance and acclamation, a day of sacred assembly. 25You shall not do your daily work; you shall present a food-offering to the LORD.

The Day of Atonement. - Nm.29.1-6

26The LORD spoke to Moses and said: 27Further, the tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement. There shall be a sacred assembly; you shall mortify yourselves and present a food-offering to the LORD. 28On that same day you shall do no work because it is a day of expiation, to make expiation for you before the LORD your God. 29Therefore every person who does not mortify himself on that day shall be cut off from his father's kin. 30I will extirpate any person who does any work on that day. 31You shall do no work; it is a rule binding on your descendants for all time wherever you live. 32It is for you a sabbath of sacred rest, and you shall mortify yourselves. From the evening of the ninth day to the following evening you shall keep your sabbath-rest.

Feast of Booths. - Nu.29.12-40

33The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 34Speak to the Israelites in these words: On the fifteenth day of this seventh month the LORD's pilgrim-feast of Tabernacles Or Booths or Arbours begins, and it lasts for seven days. 35On the first day there shall be a sacred assembly; you shall not do your daily work. 36For seven days you shall present a food-offering to the LORD; and on the eighth day there shall be a sacred assembly, and you shall present a food-offering to the LORD. It is the closing ceremony; you shall not do your daily work.

37These are the appointed seasons of the LORD which you shall proclaim as sacred assemblies for presenting food-offerings to the LORD, whole-offerings and grain-offerings, shared-offerings and drink-offerings, each on its day, 38besides the LORD's sabbaths and all your gifts, your vows, and your freewill offerings to the LORD.

39Further, from the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when the harvest has been gathered, you shall keep the LORD's pilgrim-feast for seven days. The first day is a sacred rest and so is the eighth day, 40On the first day you shall take the fruit of citrus-trees, palm fronds, and leafy branches, and willows Or poplars from the riverside, and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God for seven days. 41You shall keep this as a pilgrim-feast in the LORD's honour for seven days every year. It is a rule binding for all time on your descendants; in the seventh month you shall hold this pilgrim-feast. 42You shall live in arbours for seven days, all who are native Israelites, 43so that your descendants may be reminded how I made the Israelites live in arbours when I brought them out of Egypt. I am the LORD your God.

44Thus Moses announced to the Israelites the appointed seasons of the LORD.


  24.

Care of lamps. - Ex.27.20-21

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES and said: 2Command the Israelites to take pure oil of pounded olives ready for the regular mounting of the lamp 3outside the Veil of the Tokens in the Tent of the Presence. Aaron shall keep the lamp in trim regularly from dusk to dawn before the LORD: this is a rule binding on your descendants for all time. 4The lamps on the lamp-stand, ritually clean, shall be regularly kept in trim by him before the LORD.

Bread offerings.

5You shall take flour and bake it into twelve loaves, two tenths of an ephah to each. 6You shall arrange them in two rows, six to a row on the table, ritually clean, before the LORD. 7You shall sprinkle pure frankincense on the rows, and this shall be a token of the bread, offered to the LORD as a food-offering. 8Sabbath after sabbath he shall arrange it regularly before the LORD as a gift from the Israelites. This is a covenant for ever; 9it is the privilege of Aaron and his sons, and they shall eat the bread in a holy place, because it is the holiest of holy-gifts. It is his due out of the food-offerings of the LORD for all time.

Penalties.

10Now there was in the Israelite camp a man whose mother was an Israelite and his father an Egyptian; 11his mother's name was Shelomith daughter of Dibri of the tribe of Dan; and he went out and became involved in a brawl with an Israelite of pure descent. He uttered the Holy Name in blasphemy, so they brought him to Moses; 12and they kept him in custody until the LORD's will should be clearly made known to them.

13The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 14Take the man who blasphemed out of the camp. Everyone who heard him shall put a hand Or their hands on his head, and then all the community shall stone him to death. 15You shall say to the Israelites: When any man whatever blasphemes his God, he shall accept responsibility for his sin. 16Whoever utters the Name of the LORD shall be put to death: all the community shall stone him; alien or native, if he utters the Name, he shall be put to death.

17When one man strikes another and kills him, he shall be put to death. 18Whoever strikes a beast and kills it shall make restitution, life for life. 19When one man injures and disfigures his fellow-countryman, it shall be done to him as he has done; 20fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; the injury and disfigurement that he has inflicted upon another shall in turn be inflicted upon him.

21Whoever strikes a beast and kills it shall make restitution, but whoever strikes a man and kills him shall be put to death. 22You shall have one penalty for alien and native alike. For I am the LORD your God.

23Thus did Moses speak to the Israelites, and they took the man who blasphemed out of the camp and stoned him to death. The Israelites did as the LORD had commanded Moses.


  25.

The Sabbatical Year. - Dt.15.1-11

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES on Mount Sinai and said, 2Speak to the Israelites in these words: When you enter the land which I give you, the land shall keep sabbaths to the LORD. 3For six years you may sow your fields and for six years prune your vineyards and gather the harvest, 4but in the seventh year the land shall keep a sabbath of sacred rest, a sabbath to the LORD. You shall not sow your field nor prune your vineyard. 5You shall not harvest the crop that grows from fallen grain, nor gather in the grapes from the unpruned vines. It shall be a year of sacred rest for the land. 6Yet what the land itself produces in the sabbath year shall be food for you, for your male and female slaves, for your hired man, and for the stranger lodging under your roof, 7for your cattle and for the wild animals in your country. Everything it produces may be used for food.

The Year of Jubilee.

8You shall count seven sabbaths of years, that is seven times seven years, forty-nine years, 9and in the seventh month on the tenth day of the month, on the Day of Atonement, you shall send the ram's horn round. You shall send it through all your land to sound a blast, 10and so you shall hallow the fiftieth year and proclaim liberation in the land for all its inhabitants. You shall make this your year of jubilee. Every man of you shall return to his patrimony, every man to his family. 11The fiftieth year shall be your jubilee. You shall not sow, and you shall not harvest the self-sown crop, nor shall you gather in the grapes from the unpruned vines, 12because it is a jubilee, to be kept holy by you. You shall eat the produce direct from the land.

13In this year of jubilee you shall return, every one of you, to his patrimony. 14When you sell or buy land amongst yourselves, neither party shall drive a hard bargain. 15You shall pay your fellow-countryman according to the number of years since the jubilee, and he shall sell to you according to the number of annual crops. 16The more years there are to run, the higher the price, the fewer the years, the lower, because he is selling you a series of crops. 17You must not victimize one another, but you shall fear your God, because I am the LORD your God.

Abundance for the Sabbatical year.

18Observe my statutes, keep my judgements and carry them out; and you shall live in the land in security. 19The land shall yield its harvest; you shall eat your fill and live there secure. 20If you ask what you are to eat during the seventh year, seeing that you will neither sow nor gather the harvest, 21I will ordain my blessing for you in the sixth year and the land shall produce a crop to carry over three years. 22When you sow in the eighth year, you will still be eating from the earlier crop; you shall eat the old until the new crop is gathered in the ninth year.

23No land shall be sold outright, because the land is mine, and you are coming into it as aliens and settlers. 24Throughout the whole land of your patrimony, you shall allow land which has been sold to be redeemed.

Restoration of property.

25When one of you is reduced to poverty and sells part of his patrimony, his next-of-kin who has the duty of redemption shall come and redeem what his kinsman has sold. 26When a man has no such next-of-kin and himself becomes able to afford its redemption, 27he shall take into account the years since the sale and pay the purchaser the balance up to the jubilee. Then he may return to his patrimony. 28But if the man cannot afford to buy back the property, it shall remain in the hands of the purchaser till the year of jubilee. It shall then revert to the original owner, and he shall return to his patrimony.

29When a man sells a dwelling-house in a walled town, he shall retain the right of redemption till the end of the year of the sale; for a time he shall have the right of redemption. 30If it is not redeemed before a full year is out, the house in the walled town shall vest in perpetuity in the buyer and his descendants; it shall not revert at the jubilee. 31Houses in unwalled hamlets shall be treated as property in the open country: the right of redemption shall hold good, and in any case the house shall revert at the jubilee. 32Levites shall have the perpetual right to redeem houses of their own patrimony in towns belonging to them. 33If one of the Levites does not redeem his house in such a town, then it shall still revert to him at the jubilee, because the houses in Levite towns are their patrimony in Israel. 34The common land surrounding their towns shall not be sold, because it is their property in perpetuity.

The poor.

35When your brother-Israelite is reduced to poverty and cannot support himself in the community, you shall assist him as you would an alien or a stranger, and he shall live with you. 36You shall not charge him interest on a loan, either by deducting it in advance from the capital sum, or by adding it on repayment. You shall fear your God, and your brother shall live with you; 37you shall not deduct interest when advancing him money nor add interest to the payment due for food supplied on credit. 38I am the LORD your God who brought you out of Egypt to give you the land of Canaan and to become your God.

Manumission.

39When your brother is reduced to poverty and sells himself to you, you shall not use him to work for you as a slave. 40His status shall be that of a hired man or a stranger lodging with you; he shall work for you until the year of jubilee. 41He shall then leave your service, with his children, and go back to his family and to his ancestral property: 42because they are my slaves whom I brought out of Egypt, they shall not be sold as slaves are sold. 43You shall not drive him with ruthless severity, but you shall fear your God. 44Such slaves as you have, male or female, shall come from the nations round about you; from them you may buy slaves. 45You may also buy the children of those who have settled and lodge with you and such of their family as are born in the land. These may become your property, 46and you may leave them to your sons after you; you may use them as slaves permanently. But your fellow-Israelites you shall not drive with ruthless severity.

47When an alien or a stranger living with you becomes rich, and your brother becomes poor and sells himself to the alien or stranger or to a member of some alien family, 48he shall have the right of redemption after he has sold himself. One of his brothers may redeem him, 49or his uncle, his cousin, or any blood-relation of his family, or, if he can afford it, he may redeem himself. 50He and his purchaser together shall reckon from the year when he sold himself to the year of jubilee, and the price shall be adjusted to the number of years. His period of service with his owner shall be reckoned at the rate of a hired man. 51If there are still many years to run to the year of jubilee, he must repay for his redemption a proportionate amount of the sum for which he sold himself; 52if there are few, he shall reckon and repay accordingly. 53He shall have the status of a labourer hired from year to year, and you shall not let him be driven with ruthless severity by his owner. 54If the man is not redeemed in the intervening years, he and his children shall be released in the year of jubilee; 55for it is to me that the Israelites are slaves, my slaves whom I brought out of Egypt. I am the LORD your God.


  26.

Blessings for obedience.

1YOU SHALL NOT MAKE IDOLS for yourselves; you shall not erect a carved image or a sacred pillar; you shall not put a figured stone on your land to prostrate yourselves upon, because I am the LORD your God. 2You shall keep my sabbaths and revere my sanctuary. I am the LORD.

3If you conform to my statutes, if you observe my commandments and carry them out, 4I will give you rain at the proper time; the land shall yield its produce and the trees of the country-side their fruit. 5Threshing shall last till vintage and vintage till sowing; you shall eat your fill and live secure in your land. 6I will give peace in the land, and you shall lie down to sleep with no one to terrify you. I will rid your land of dangerous beasts and it shall not be ravaged by war. 7You shall put your enemies to flight and they shall fall in battle before you. 8Five of you shall pursue a hundred and a hundred of you ten thousand; so shall your enemies fall in battle before you. 9I will look upon you with favour, I will make you fruitful and increase your numbers: I will give my covenant with you its full effect. 10Your old harvest shall last you in store until you have to clear out the old to make room for the new. 11I will establish my Tabernacle among you and will not spurn you. 12I will walk to and fro among you; I will become your God and you shall become my people. 13I am the LORD your God who brought you out of Egypt and let you be their slaves no longer; I broke the bars of your yoke and enabled you to walk upright.

Penalties.

14But if you do not listen to me, if you fail to keep all these commandments of mine, if you reject my statutes, 15if you spurn my judgements, and do not obey all my commandments, but break my covenant, 16then be sure that this is what I will do: I will bring upon you sudden terror, wasting disease, recurrent fever, and plagues that dim the sight and cause the appetite to fail. You shall sow your seed to no purpose, for your enemies shall eat the crop. 17I will set my face against you, and you shall be routed by your enemies. Those that hate you shall hound you on until you run when there is no pursuit.

18If after all this you do not listen to me, I will go on to punish you seven times over for your sins. 19I will break down your stubborn pride. I will make the sky above you like iron and the earth beneath you like bronze. 20Your strength shall be spent in vain; your land shall not yield its produce nor the trees of the land their fruit.

21If you still defy me and refuse to listen, I will multiply your calamities seven times, as your sins deserve. 22I will send wild beasts among you; they shall tear your children from you, destroy your cattle and bring your numbers low; and your roads shall be deserted. 23If after all this you have not learnt discipline but still defy me, 24I in turn will defy you and scourge you seven times over for your sins. 25I will bring war in vengeance upon you, vengeance irrevocable under covenant; you shall be herded into your cities, I will send pestilence among you, and you shall be given over to the enemy. 26I will cut short your daily bread until ten women can bake your bread in a single oven; they shall dole it out by weight, and though you eat, you shall not be satisfied.

27If in spite of this you do not listen to me and still defy me, 28I will defy you in anger, and I myself will punish you seven times over for your sins. 29Instead of meat you shall eat your sons and your daughters. 30I will destroy your hill-shrines and demolish your incense-altars. I will pile your rotting carcasses on the rotting logs rotting logs: or effigies that were your idols, and I will spurn you. 31I will make your cities desolate and destroy your sanctuaries; the soothing odour of your offerings I will not accept. 32I will destroy your land, and the enemies who occupy it shall be appalled. 33I will scatter you among the heathen, and I will pursue you with the naked sword; your land shall be desolate and your cities heaps of rubble. 34Then, all the time that it lies desolate, while you are in exile in the land of your enemies, your land shall enjoy its sabbaths to the full. 35All the time of its desolation it shall have the sabbath rest which it did not have when you lived there. 36And I will make those of you who are left in the land of your enemies so ridden with fear that, when a leaf flutters behind them in the wind, they shall run as if it were the sword behind them; they shall fall with no one in pursuit. 37Though no one pursues them they shall stumble over one another, as if the sword were behind them, and there shall be no stand made against the enemy. 38You shall meet your end among the heathen, and your enemies' land shall swallow you up. 39Those who are left shall pine away in an enemy land under their own iniquities; and with their fathers' iniquities upon them too, they shall pine away as they did.

40But though they confess their iniquity, their own and their fathers', their treachery, and even their defiance of me, 41I will defy them in my turn and carry them off into their enemies' land. Yet if then their stubborn spirit is broken and they accept their punishment in full, 42I will remember my covenant with Jacob and my covenant with Isaac, yes, and my covenant with Abraham, and I will remember the land. 43The land shall be rid of its people and enjoy in full its sabbaths while it lies desolate, and they shall pay in full the penalty because they rejected my judgements and spurned my statutes. 44Yet even then, in their enemies' land, I shall not have rejected nor spurned them, bringing them to an end and so breaking my covenant with them, because I am the LORD their God. 45I will remember on their behalf the covenant with the men of former times whom I brought out of Egypt in full sight of all the nations, that I might be their God. I am the LORD.

46These are the statutes, the judgements, and the laws which the LORD established between himself and the Israelites on Mount Sinai through Moses.


  27.

Vows.

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES and said, 2Speak to the Israelites in these words: When a man makes a special makes a special: or discharges a vow to the LORD which requires your valuation of living persons, 3a male between twenty and sixty years old shall be valued at fifty silver shekels, that is shekels by the sacred standard. 4If it is a female, she shall be valued at thirty shekels. 5If the person is between five years old and twenty, the valuation shall be twenty shekels for a male and ten for a female. 6If the person is between a month and five years old, the valuation shall be five shekels for a male and three for a female. 7If the person is over sixty and a male, the valuation shall be fifteen shekels, but if a female, ten shekels. 8If the man is too poor to pay the amount of your valuation, the person shall be set before the priest, and the priest shall value him according to the sum which the man who makes the vow can afford: the priest shall make the valuation.

9If the vow concerns a beast such as may be offered as an offering to the LORD, then every gift shall be holy to the LORD. 10He shall not change it for another, or substitute good for bad or bad for good. But if a substitution is in fact made of one beast for another, then both the original beast and its substitute shall be holy to the LORD. 11If the vow concerns any unclean beast such as may not be offered as an offering to the LORD, then the animal shall be brought before the priest, 12and he shall value it whether good or bad. The priest's valuation shall be decisive; 13in case of redemption the payment shall be increased by one fifth.

14When a man dedicates his house as holy to the LORD, the priest shall value it whether good or bad, and the priest's valuation shall be decisive. 15If the donor redeems his house, he shall pay the amount of the valuation increased by one fifth, and the house shall be his.

16If a man dedicates to the LORD part of his ancestral land, you shall value it according to the amount of seed-corn it can carry, at the rate of fifty shekels of silver for a homer of barley seed. 17If he dedicates his land from the year of jubilee, it shall stand at your valuation; 18but if he dedicates it after the year of jubilee, the priest shall estimate the price in silver according to the number of years remaining till the next year of jubilee, and this shall be deducted from your valuation. 19If the man who dedicates his field should redeem it, he shall pay the amount of your valuation in silver, increased by one fifth, and it shall be his. 20If he does not redeem it but sells the land to another man, it shall no longer be redeemable; 21when the land reverts at the year of jubilee, it shall be like land that has been devoted, holy to the LORD. It shall belong to the priest as his patrimony.

22If a man dedicates to the LORD land which he has bought, land which is not part of his ancestral land, 23the priest shall estimate the amount of the value for the period until the year of jubilee, and the man shall give the amount fixed as at that day; it is holy to the LORD. 24At the year of jubilee the land shall revert to the man from whom he bought it, whose patrimony it is. 25Every valuation you make shall be made by the sacred standard (twenty gerahs to the shekel).

26Notwithstanding, no man may dedicate to the LORD the first-born of a beast which in any case has to be offered as a first-born, whether an ox or a sheep. It is the LORD's. 27If it is any unclean beast, he may redeem it at your valuation and shall add one fifth; but if it is not redeemed, it shall be sold at your valuation. 28Notwithstanding, nothing which a man devotes to the LORD irredeemably from his own property, whether man or beast or ancestral land, may be sold or redeemed. Everything so devoted is most holy to the LORD. 29No human being thus devoted may be redeemed, but he shall be put to death.

30Every tithe on land, whether from grain or from the fruit of a tree, belongs to the LORD; it is holy to the LORD. 31If a man wishes to redeem any of his tithe, he shall pay its value increased by one fifth. 32Every tenth creature that passes under the counting rod shall be holy to the LORD; this applies to all tithes of cattle and sheep. 33There shall be no inquiry whether it is good or bad, and no substitution. If any substitution is made, then both the tithe-animal and its substitute shall be forfeit as holy; it shall not be redeemed.

34These are the commandments which the LORD gave Moses for the Israelites on Mount Sinai.


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