THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT . Edited by Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce M Metzger, Allen Wikgren. United Bible Societies London Copyright 1966. - This Edition prepared for katapi by Paul Ingram 2004.

Introduction (Part 2)

HOME | Contents | Ancient Versions | Church Fathers | Old Latin | Vulg & others | Abbreviations used

3. The Evidence from Ancient Versions

The evidence cited from ancient versions includes the Latin (Itala or Old Latin, and Vulgate), Syriac, Coptic, Gothic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Georgian, and rarely Arabic, Nubian, Old High German, Persian, Provencal and Slavonic.
The versional evidence has been derived primarily from printed editions (see bibliography).
It must always be employed with caution since the very process of translation frequently obscures its textual basis, and resemblances can be merely accidental, especially if a translation is relatively free.
Because of its uncertain character, it is not infrequently cited with a question mark (to indicate that the grammatical structure of the language makes it difficult, to cite confidently at this point) or with parenthesis marks (to indicate that there is similarity but not identity of readings).
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Itala or Old Latin (Second to Fourth Century) The following manuscripts have been cited in this edition:

Itala or Old Latin (Second to Fourth Century)

Content: e=Gospels; a=Acts; p=Epistles of St Paul; c=Catholic or General Episles; r=Revelation.
Numbers and dates: are cited according to the Beuron Catalogue.
Editor: See Bibliography.

Manuscript

Content Name Date Editor
a 3 e Vercellensis IV Jülicher
a2 16 e Curiensis V Jülicher
ar 61 eapcr Ardmachanus IX Gwynn
aur 15 e Aureus VII Jülicher
b 4 e Veronensis V Jülicher
β 26 e Carinthianum VII Jülicher
c 6 eapcr Colbertinus /I Jülicher
d 5 eac Bezae Cantabrigiensis V Jülicher
d 75 p Claromontanus V/VI Tischendorf
dem 59 apcr Demidovianus I Matthaei
div   per Divionensis I Wordsworth-White
e 2 e Palatinus V Jülicher
e 50 a Laudianus VI Tischendorf
e 76 p Sangermanensis IX Tischendorf
f 10 e Brixianus VI Jülicher
f 78 p Augiensis IX Scrivener
ff 66 c Corbeiensis X/XI Wordsworth-White
ff1 9 eac Corbeiensis I X Jülicher
ff2 8 e Corbeiensis II V Jülicher
g 77 p Boernerianus IX Matthaei
g1 7 eapcr Sangermanensis IX Jülicher
gig 51 eapcr Gigas I Belsheim; Wordsworth-White
gue 79 p Guelferbytanus VI Tischendorf
h 12 e Claromontanus V Jülicher
h 55 acr Floriacensis V Buchanan
haf   r Hafnianus X Wordsworth-White
i 17 e Vindobonensis V Jülicher
j 22 e Sarzanensis VI Jülicher
k 1 e Bobiensis IV/V Jülicher
l 11 e Rhedigeranus VII/VIII Jülicher
l 67 eapcr Legionensis VII Fischer
m   eapcr Speculum (or  Ps-Augustine) IV-IX Jülicher; Wordsworth-White
mon 86 p Monza X Frede
n 16 e Sangallensis V Jülicher
o 16 e Sangallensis VII Jülicher
p 20 e Sangallensis VIII Jülicher
p 54 eapcr Perpinianensis I Wordsworth-White
ph 63 a Philadelphiensis   Sanders
π 18 e Stuttgartensis VII Jülicher
q 13 e Monacensis VII Jülicher
q 64 c Monacensis VII de Bruyne
r 57 a Schlettstadtensis Vll/VIII Morin
r1 14 e Usserianus I VII Jülicher
r2 28 e Usserianus II VII/IX Jülicher
r3 64 p Monacensis VII de Bruyne
ρ 24 e Ambrosianus VII/VIII Jülicher
s 21 e Ambrosianus V Jülicher
s 53 ac Bobiensis VI White
t 56 eapcr Liber Comicus Toletanus XI Morin
t 19 e Bernensis VI Jülicher
v 25 e Vindobonensis VII Jülicher
v 81 p Parisiensis about 800 Souter
w 83 p Waldeccensis XI Schultze
x   p Bodleianus IX Wordsworth-White
z 65 per Harleianus Londiniensis VIII Buchanan

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 Vulgate (Fourth Century)

vg.

  Vulgate, when the Clementine and the Wordsworth-White editions are in agreement.

vg.cl

  the Clementine edition when it differs from Wordsworth-White.

cg.ww

  the Wordsworth-White edition when it differs from the Clementine.

Syriac (Second or Third to Seventh Century)

1.

 Old Syriac

 

syr.s

Sinaitic (Lewis)
 

syr.c

Curetonian (Burkitt)

2.

Peshitta and Later Syriac

 

syr.p

Peshitta (Pusey and Gwilliarn; B.F.B.S. edition)
 

syr.pa1

Palestinian (Lewis and Gibson, and others)
 

syr.ph

philoxenian (Gwynn)
 

syr.h

Harclean (White)
 

syr.h.mg

a marginal reading.
 

syr.h.gr

a Greek marginal reading.
 

Syr.h with *

a reading in the Syriac text, marked by asterisks to indicate the existence of a variant.

 Coptic (Third to Sixth Century)

Cop.sa

  Sahidic (Horner; Kasser; Thompson)

cop.bo

  Bohairic (IIorner; Kasser)

cop.fay

  Fayyumic (Husselman and others)

cop.ach

  Achmimic (Lefort; Thompson)

cop.ach2

  Sub-Achmimic (Thompson)

 Gothic (Fourth Century)

goth

  Gothic (Streitberg)

 Armenian (Fourth or Fifth Century)

arm

  Armenian (Zohrab)

 Ethiopia (Sixth Century)

eth.ro

  Ethiopic (Rome)

eth.pp

  Ethiopic (Pell Platt and Praetorius)

eth.ms

  Ethiopic (Paris Ms. Eth. n. 32, I-XIV Century)

 Georgian (Fifth Century)

geo

  Georgian (Blake, Briere, Garitte)

geo.1, 2

  manuscripts representing the two major Georgian traditions.

geo.a, b

  manuscripts which form the basis of geo2.

 Nubian (Sixth Century)

nub

  Nubian (Griffith)

Other Versions

Occasional citations of the following versions have been derived from printed editions of the Greek New Testament.

Arab

Arabic Old German Old High German

Pers

Persian

Provencal

Provencal or Old French

Slav

Old Church Slavonic.

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4. The Evidence from Church Fathers

Evidence for the citation of the Church Fathers has been taken almost wholly from printed editions of the Greek New Testament and has not yet been checked. These data are not always reliable since many of the patristic editions employed by earlier editors of the Greek New Testament are out of date. Moreover, a Church Father not infrequently quotes the same passage in more than one form, often from memory rather than by consulting a manuscript, and may therefore appear in support of differing readings. Furthermore, the manuscripts of the Church Fathers have suffered the usual transcriptional modifications to which all ancient manuscripts were subject; this was especially true for Biblical passages where the tendency of scribes was to accommodate readings to the Byzantine textual tradition.

The following Church Fathers are cited in the apparatus in their presumed chronological sequence, and usually according to the spelling of Altaner. Dates given are generally those accepted for their death; in many cases these are approximate. Because of the considerable difficulties involved in distinguishing traditional abbreviations, and for convenience in use, the names of the Church Fathers are given in full, along with a few other authors and early writings of which the authorship is either unknown or disputed.

Church Fathers cited in the apparatus

Name

Date

Acacius

366

Acts of Pilate

IV

Acts of Thomas

III

Adamantius

300

Addai (see Teaching of Addai)

 

Africanus

240

Alexander, of Alexandria

328

Ambrose

397

Ambrosiaster

IV

Ammonius

III

Ammonius-Alexandria

V

Amphilochius

394

Anastasius-Abbot

VIII?

Chrysostom

407

Anastasius, of Antioch

700

Andrew, of Caesarea

614

Andrew-Crete

740

Ansbert

VIII

Anthony

VIII or

Antiochus, of St. Saba

614

Aphraates

367

Apollinaris, the Younger

390

Apostolic Canons

IV

Apostolic Constitutions

380

Apringius

551

Archclaus

278

Arethas

914

Aristides

II

Arius

336

Arnobius

460

Asterius

341

Athenagoras

II

Athanasius

373

Augustine

430

Basil, the Great

379

Beatus

786

Bede

735

Caelestinus, of Rome

IV

Caesarius, of Arles

542

Caesarius-Nazianzus

369

Carpocrates

II

Cassian

435

Cassiodorus

580

Chromatius

407

Claudius, of Turin

IX

Clement, of Alexandria

215

Cosmos

550

Cyprian

258

Cyril, of Alexandria

444

 Cyril-Jerusalem

386

de Promissionibus

453

Diadochus

468

Diatessaron, of Tatian

II

Didache

II

Didascalia

III

Didymus, of Alexandria

398

Diodore

394

Diognetus

II

Dionysius, the Great, of Alexandria

265

Docetists

II

Druthmarus

840

Ephraem

373

Epiphanius

403

Eugippus

533

Eulogius

607

Eusebian Canons

IV

Eusebius, of Caesarea

339

Eustathius

337

Euthalius

V

Eutherius

434

Euthymius

 

Facundus

569

Fastidius

V

Eaustinus

380

Faustus, of Riez

490

Faustus-Milevis

IV-V

Ferrandus

IV

Fulgentius

533

Gaudentius

406

Gelasius-Cyzicus

475

Gennadius, of Marseilles

505

Gennadius- Constantinople

471

Gildas

570

Gospel of the Ebionites

II

Gospel of the Nazarenes

II

Gregory-Elvira

392

Gregory-Xazianzus

390

Gregory-Nyssa

394

Gregory-Thaumaturgus

270

Haymo

841

Hegemonius

350

Hegesippus

180

Heracleon

II

Hesychius, of Jerusalem

459

Hesychius-Salonitan

418

Hieracus

302

Hilary

367

Hippolytus

235

Ignatius

110

Irenaeus

202

Isidore

435

Jacob-Nisibis

338

Jerome

420

John-Damascus

749

Julian-Eclanum

454

Julius, I

352

Justin

165

Juvencus

330

Leo

461

Leontius

VI

Liberatus

566

Liber Graduum

320

Lucifer, of Cagliari

370

Macarius, Magnes

400

Macrobius

IV

Manes

277

Manicheans

III

Marcion

II

Marcus, Eremita

430

Marius Mercator

V

Maternus

348

Maximinus

428

Maximus, II, of Turin

423

Maximus-Confessor

662

Melitius

381

Methodius

III

Naassenes

II/'III

Nestorius

451

Niceta

414

Nonnus

431

Novatian

III

Oecumenius

VI

Optatus

385

Origen

254

Orosius

418

Orsisius

380

pacian

392

Palladius

431

Pamphilus

310

Papias

II

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 405

IV

Paschal Chronicle

630

Paulinus-Nola

431

Pelagius

412

Perateni

III

Peter-Alexandria

311

Peter-Laodicea

VI

Petilianus

V

Philo-Carpasia

401

Phoebadius

392

Photius

895

Pierius

309

Polycarp

156

Porphyry

III

Possidius

V

Primasius

552

Priscillian

385

Proclus

446

Procopius

538

Promissionibus, de

453

Ps-Ambrose

VI

Ps-Athanasius

VI

Ps-Augustine

?

Ps-Chrysostom

VI

Ps-Clement

IV

Ps-Cyprian

?

Ps-Dionysius

V

Ps-Hippolytus

?

Ps-Ignatius

V

Ps- Jerome

V

Ps-Justin

IV/V

Ps-Oecumenius

X

Ps-Theodulus

VI/VII?

Ps-Titus

?

Ps-Vigilius

?

Ptolemy, a Gnostic

II

Rebaptism (de Rebaptismate)

III?

Rufinus

410

Rupertus

1135

Salvian

480

Sedulius-Scotus

IX

Serapion

362

Severian

408

Severus

538

Socrates, of Constantinople

439

Sozomen

450

Sulpicius

420

Synesius

414

Tatian (see Diatessaron)

II

Teaching of Addai

400

Tertullian

220

Theodore, of  Mopsuestia

428

Theodore-Heraclea

358

Theodore-Studita

826

Theodoret

466

Theodotus, of Byzantium

II

Theodotus-Ancyra

445

Theophilua, Antioch

180

Theophylact

1077

Theotecnus

III

Titus-Bostra

378

Tyconius

380

Valentinians

II

Valentinus

160

Valerian

460

Varimadum

380

Victor-Antioch

V

Victor-Tunis

566

Victor-Vita

489

Victorinus-Pettau

304

Victorinus-Rome, Marius

362

Vigilius

484

Zeno

372

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The problem of the Diatessaron of Tatian is particularly complex due to the indirect nature of the evidence, and the resulting diversity of theories and opinions concerning the tradition. When the term Diatessaron is used without super­script designation (see below) it usually refers to the Arabic version, which has been extensively accommodated to the Syriac Peshitta. However, rather than eliminate evidence traditionally cited for the Diatessaron, the Committee has included it, though with this word of caution.

The following abbreviations are frequently used in citing evidence from the Church Fathers:

( )

indicate that a Church Father supports the reading for which he is cited, but deviates from it in minor details.

txt

the lemma, that is, the cited portion of the text of the New Testament, on which the commentary of a Church Father is based, where this diners from the form of text cited in the commentary itself.

comm

the New Testament text cited in the commentary, where the citation differs from the lemma.

ed

published edition (s) of a Church Father.

ms, mss

manuscript(s) of a Church Father when differing from the edited text.

gr

the Greek text of a Church Father as distinct from a version in another language.

Lat

the Latin version of a Greek Church Father.

arm

the Armenian version of a Church Father.

slav

the Slavonic version of a Church Father.

acc.to

according to.

½, 2/3, 5/7 etc.

flip second figure of the fraction indicates the number of times a particular passage is cited by a Church Father, and the first specifies the number of times the passage is cited in the particular form of the variant with which the fraction is placed.

a, b, c

different manuscripts of the writings of Theophylact.
The superscripts do not indicate correctors of manuscripts, as is the case with N and I).

a, bav, c,p

different manuscripts of Andrew of Caesarea's Commentary on Revelation.

Special abbreviations used in connection with the Diatessaron include:

a

Arabic

e

 quotation by Ephraem

e.arm

quotation preserved in the Armenian version of  Ephraem's commentary.

e.syr

quotation preserved in the Syriac text of Ephraem's commentary.

f

Fulda       

i

Italian (the agreement' of t and v)

L

Liege

o

Old Dutch (the agreement of L and S)

p

Persian   

s

Stuttgart        

t

Tuscan

v

Venetian

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