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Exodus


  1. EXODUS. EGYPT: The oppression. (Pithom)

1THESE ARE THE NAMES of the Israelites who entered Egypt with Jacob, each with his household: 2Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah; 3Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin; 4Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5There were seventy of them all told, all direct descendants of Jacob. Joseph was already in Egypt.

6In course of time Joseph died, he and all his brothers and that whole generation. 7Now the Israelites were fruitful and prolific; they increased in numbers and became very powerful Or numerous, so that the country was overrun by them. 8Then a new king ascended the throne of Egypt, one who knew nothing of Joseph. 9He said to his people, 'These Israelites have become too many and too strong for us. 10We must take precautions to see that they do not increase any further; or we shall find that, if war breaks out, they will join the enemy and fight against us, and they will become masters of the country.' 11So they were made to work in gangs with officers set over them, to break their spirit with heavy labour. This is how Pharaoh's store-cities, Pithom and Rameses, were built. 12But the more harshly they were treated, the more their numbers increased beyond all bounds, until the Egyptians came to loathe the sight of them. 13So they treated their Israelite slaves with ruthless severity, 14and made life bitter for them with cruel servitude, setting them to work on clay and brick-making, and all sorts of work in the fields. In short they made ruthless use of them as slaves in every kind of hard labour.

15Then the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, whose names were Shiphrah and Puah. 16'When you are attending the Hebrew women in childbirth,' he told them, 'watch as the child is delivered and if it is a boy, kill him; if it is a girl, let her live.' 17But they were God-fearing women. They did not do what the king of Egypt had told them to do, but let the boys live. 18So he summoned those Hebrew midwives and asked them why they had done this and let the boys live. 19They told Pharaoh that Hebrew women were not like Egyptian women. When they were in labour they gave birth before the midwife could get to them. 20So God made the midwives prosper, and the people increased in numbers and in strength. 21God gave the midwives homes and families of their own, because they feared him. 22Pharaoh then ordered all his people to throw every new-born Hebrew boy into the Nile, but to let the girls live.


  2. MOSES: Birth.

1A descendant of Levi married a Levite woman 2who conceived and bore a son. When she saw what a fine child he was, she hid him for three months, 3but she could conceal him no longer. So she got a rush basket for him, made it watertight with clay and tar, laid him in it, and put it among the reeds by the bank of the Nile. 4The child's sister took her stand at a distance to see what would happen to him. 5Pharaoh's daughter came down to bathe in the river, while her ladies-in-waiting walked along the bank. She noticed the basket among the reeds and sent her slave-girl for it. She took it from her 6and when she opened it, she saw the child. It was crying, and she was filled with pity for it. 'Why,' she said, 'it is a little Hebrew boy.' 7Thereupon the sister said to Pharaoh's daughter, 'Shall I go and fetch one of the Hebrew women as a wet-nurse to suckle the child for you?' 8Pharaoh's daughter told her to go; so the girl went and called the baby's mother. 9Then Pharaoh's daughter said to her, 'Here is the child, suckle him for me, and I will pay you for it myself.' So the woman took the child and suckled him. 10When the child was old enough, she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, who adopted him and called him Moses Heb Mosheh, 'because', she said, 'I drew Heb verb mashah him out of the water.'

Moses escapes to Midian.

11ONE DAY WHEN MOSES WAS GROWN UP, he went out to his own kinsmen and saw them at their heavy labour. He saw an Egyptian strike one of his fellow Hebrews. 12He looked this way and that, and, seeing there was no one about, he struck the Egyptian down and hid his body in the sand. 13When he went out next day, two Hebrews were fighting together. He asked the man who was in the wrong, 'Why are you striking him?' 14'Who set you up as an officer and judge over us?' the man replied. 'Do you mean to murder me as you murdered the Egyptian?' Moses was alarmed. 'The thing must have become known', he said to himself. 15When Pharaoh heard of it, he tried to put Moses to death, but Moses made good his escape and settled in the land of Midian.

16Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters. One day as Moses sat by a well, they came to draw water and filled the troughs to water their father's sheep. 17Some shepherds came and drove them away; but Moses got up, took the girls' part and watered their sheep himself. 18When the girls came back to their father Reuel, he 'asked, 'How is it that you are back so quickly today?' 19'An Egyptian rescued us from the shepherds,' they answered; 'and he even drew the water for us and watered the sheep.' 20'But where is he then?' he said to his daughters. 'Why did you leave him behind? Go and invite him to eat with us.' 21So it came about that Moses agreed to live with the man, and he gave Moses his daughter Zipporah in marriage. 22She bore him a son, and Moses called him Gershom, 'because', he said, 'I have become an alien Heb ger living in a foreign land.'

23YEARS PASSED, and the king of Egypt died, but the Israelites still groaned in slavery. They cried out, and their appeal for rescue from their slavery rose up to God. 24He heard their groaning, and remembered his covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; 25he saw the plight of Israel, and he took heed of it.


  3. God calls Moses.

1Moses was minding the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, priest of Midian. He led the flock along the side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. 2There the angel of the LORD appeared to him in the flame of a burning bush. Moses noticed that, although the bush was on fire, it was not being burnt up; 3so he said to himself, 'I must go across to see this wonderful sight. Why does not the bush burn away?' 4When the LORD saw that Moses had turned aside to look, he called to him out of the bush, 'Moses, Moses.' And Moses answered, 'Yes, I am here.' 5God said, 'Come no nearer; take off your sandals; the place where you are standing is holy ground.' 6Then he said, 'I am the God of your forefathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob.' Moses covered his face, for he was afraid to gaze on God.

7The LORD said, 'I have indeed seen the misery of my people in Egypt. I have heard their outcry against their slave-masters. I have taken heed of their sufferings, 8and have come down to rescue them from the power of Egypt, and to bring them up out of that country into a fine, broad land; it is a land ?owing with milk and honey, the home of Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. 9The outcry of the Israelites has now reached me; yes, I have seen the brutality of the Egyptians towards them. 10Come now; I will send you to Pharaoh and you shall bring my people Israel out of Egypt.' 11'But who am I,' Moses said to God, 'that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring the Israelites out of Egypt?' 12God answered, 'I am Or I will be Heb ehyeh' with you. This shall be the proof that it is I who have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall all worship God here on this mountain.'

13Then Moses said to God, 'If I go to the Israelites and tell them that the God of their forefathers has sent me to them, and they ask me his name, what shall I say?' 14God answered,"I AM, that is who I amI AM ... I am or I will be what I will be. Tell them that I AM has sent you to them.' 15And, God said further, 'You must tell the Israelites this, that it is JEHOVAH The Hebrew consonants are YHWH, probably pronounced Yahweh, but traditionally read Jehovah the God of their forefathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, who has sent you to them. This is my name for ever; this is my. title in every generation.' 16Go and assemble the elders of Israel and tell them that JEHOVAH the God of their forefathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, has appeared to you and has said,, "I have indeed turned my eyes towards you; I have marked all that has been done to you in Egypt, and 17I am resolved to bring you up out of your misery in Egypt, into the country of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, a land flowing with milk and honey." 18They will listen to you, and then you and the elders of Israel must go to the king of Egypt. Tell him, "It has happened that the LORD the God of the Hebrews met us. So now give us leave to go a three days' journey Into the wilderness to offer sacrifice to the LORD our God." 19I know well that the king of Egypt will not give you leave unless he is compelled. 20I shall then stretch out my hand and assail the Egyptians with all the miracles I shall work among them. After that he will send you away. 21Further, I will bring this people into such favour with the Egyptians that, when you go, you will not go empty-handed. 22Every woman shall ask her neighbour or any woman who lives in her house for jewellery of silver and gold and for clothing. Load your sons and daughters with them, and plunder Egypt.'


  4. God commissions Moses and Aaron.

1Moses answered, 'But they will never believe me or listen to me; they will say, "The LORD did not appear to you." ' 2The LORD said, 'What have you there in your hand? A staff", Moses answered. 3The LORD said, 'Throw it on the ground.' Moses threw it down and it turned into a snake. He ran away from it, 4but the LORD said, 'Put your hand out and seize it by the tail.' He did so and gripped it firmly, mid it turned back into a staff in his hand. 5'This is to convince the people that the LORD the God of their forefathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.' 6Then the LORD said, 'Put your hand inside the fold of your cloak.' He did so, and when he drew it out the skin was diseased, white as snow. 7The LORD said, 'Put it back again', and he did so. When he drew it out this time it was a healthy us the rest of his body. 8'Now,' said the LORD, 'if they do not believe you and do not accept the evidence of the first sign, they may accept the evidence of the second. 9But if they are not convinced even by these two signs, and will not accept what you say, then fetch some water from the Nile and pour it out on the dry ground, and the water you take from the Nile will turn to blood on the ground.'

10But Moses said, 'O LORD, I have never been a man of ready speech, never in my life, not even now that thou hast spoken to me; I am slow and hesitant of speech.' 11The LORD said to him, 'Who is it that gives man speech? Who makes him dumb or deaf? Who makes him clear-sighted or blind? Is it not I, the LORD? 12Go now; I will help your speech and tell you what to say.' 13But Moses still protested, 'No, Lord, send whom thou wilt.' 14At this the LORD grew angry with Moses and said, 'Have you not a brother, Aaron the Levite? He, I know, will do all the speaking. He is already on his way out to meet you, and he will be glad indeed to see you. 15You shall speak to him and put the words in his mouth; I will help both of you to speak and tell you both what to do. 16He will do all the speaking to the people for you, he will be the mouthpiece, and you will be the god he speaks for. 17But take this staff, for with it you are to work the signs.'

Moses returns to Egypt.

18At length Moses went back to Jethro his father-in-law and said, 'Let me return to my kinsfolk in Egypt and see if they are still alive.' Jethro told him to go and wished him well.

19THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES in Midian and said to him, 'Go back to Egypt, for all those who wished to kill you are dead.' 20So Moses took his wife and children, mounted them on an ass and set out for Egypt with the staff of God in his hand. 21The LORD said to Moses, 'While you are on your way back to Egypt, keep in mind all the portents I have given you power to show. You shall display these before Pharaoh, but I will make him obstinate and he will not let the people go. 22Then tell Pharaoh that these are the words of the LORD: 23"Israel is my first-born son. I have told you to let my son go, so that he may worship me. You have refused to let him go, so I will kill your first-born son." '

24During the journey, while they were encamped for the night, the LORD met Moses, meaning to kill him, 25but Zipporah picked up a sharp flint, cut off her son's foreskin, and touched him with it, saying, 'You are my blood-bridegroom.' 26So the LORD let Moses alone. Then she said Or Therefore women say, 'Blood-bride-groom by circumcision.'

27Meanwhile the LORD had ordered Aaron to go and meet Moses in the wilderness. Aaron went and met him at the mountain of God, and he kissed him. 28Then Moses told Aaron everything, the words the LORD had sent him to say and the signs he had commanded him to perform. 29Moses and Aaron went and assembled all the elders of Israel. 30Aaron told them everything that the LORD had said to Moses; he performed the signs before the people, 31and they were convinced. They heard that the LORD had shown his concern for the Israelites and seen their misery; and they bowed themselves to the ground in worship.


  5. Moses and Aaron before the Pharaoh.

1After this, Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and said, 'These are the words of the LORD the God of Israel: "Let my people go so that they may keep my pilgrim-feast in the wilderness." ' 2'Who is the LORD,' asked Pharaoh, 'that I should obey him and let Israel go? I care nothing for the LORD: and I tell you I will not let Israel go.' 3They replied, 'It has happened that the God of the Hebrews met us. So let us go three days' journey into the wilderness to offer sacrifice to the LORD our God, or else he will attack us with pestilence or sword.' 4But the king of Egypt said, 'Moses and Aaron, what do you mean by distracting the people from their work? Back to your labours! 5Your people already outnumber the native Egyptians; yet you would have them stop working!'

6That very day Pharaoh ordered the people's overseers and their foremen 7not to supply the people with the straw used in making bricks, as they had done hitherto. 'Let them go and collect their own straw, 8but see that they produce the same tally of bricks as before. On no account reduce it. They are a lazy people, and that is why they are clamouring to go and offer sacrifice to their god. 9Keep the men hard at work; let them attend to that and take no notice of a pack of lies.' 10The overseers and foremen went out and said to the people, 'Pharaoh's orders are that no more straw is to be supplied. 11Go and get it for yourselves wherever you can find it; but there will be no reduction in your daily task.' 12So the people scattered all over Egypt to gather stubble for straw, 13while the overseers kept urging them on, bidding them complete, day after day, the same quantity as when straw was supplied. 14Then the Israelite foremen were flogged because they were held responsible by Pharaoh's overseers, who asked them, 'Why did you not complete the usual number of bricks yesterday or today?' 15So the foremen came and appealed to Pharaoh: 'Why do you treat your servants like this?' they said. 16'We are given no straw, yet they keep on telling us to make bricks. Here are we being flogged, but it is your people's fault.' 17But Pharaoh replied, 'You are lazy, you are lazy. That is why you talk about going to offer sacrifice to the LORD. 18Now go; get on with your work. You will be given no straw, but you must produce the tally of bricks.' 19When they were told that they must not let the daily tally of bricks fall short, the Israelite foremen saw that they were in trouble. 20As they came out from Pharaoh's presence they found Moses and Aaron waiting to meet them, 21and said, 'May this bring the LORD's judgement down upon you: you have made us stink in the nostrils of Pharaoh and his subjects; you have put a sword in their hands to kill us.'

Moses complains to God.

22Moses went back to the LORD, and said, 'Why, O Lord, hast thou brought misfortune on this people? And why didst thou ever send me? 23Since I first went to Pharaoh to speak in thy name he has heaped misfortune on thy people, and thou hast done nothing at all to rescue them.'


  6.

1The LORD answered, 'Now you shall see what I will do to Pharaoh. In the end Pharaoh will let them go with a strong hand, nay, will drive them from his country with an outstretched arm.'

God calls Moses.

2God spoke to Moses and said, 'I am the LORD. 3I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as God Almighty. But I did not let myself be known to them by my name JEHOVAH See note on 3.I5. 4Moreover, I made a covenant with them to give them Canaan, the land where they settled for a time as foreigners. 5And now I have heard the groaning of the Israelites, enslaved by the Egyptians, and I have called my covenant to mind. 6Say therefore to the Israelites, "I am the LORD. I will release you from your labours in Egypt. I will rescue you from slavery there. I will redeem you with arm outstretched and with mighty acts of judgement. 7I will adopt you as my people, and I will become your God. You shall know that I, the LORD, am your God, the God who releases. you from your labours in Egypt. 8I will lead you to the land which I swore with uplifted hand to give to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob. I will give it to you for your possession. I am the LORD." '

9Moses repeated these words to the Israelites, but they did not listen to him; they had become impatient because of their cruel slavery.

10Then the LORD spoke to Moses and said, 11'Go and tell Pharaoh king of Egypt to set the Israelites free to leave his country.' 12Moses made answer in the presence of the LORD, 'If the Israelites do not listen to me, how will Pharaoh listen to such a halting speaker as I am?'

13Thus the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron and gave them their commission to the Israelites and to Pharaoh, namely that they should bring the Israelites out of Egypt.

Descent of Moses and Aaron.

14 vv14-16 cp Gen. 46.8-11 Num. 26.5, 6, I2, 13 THESE WERE THE HEADS of fathers' families:

Sons of Reuben, Israel's eldest son: Enoch, Pallu, Hezron and Carmi; these were the families of Reuben.

15Sons of Simeon: Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Saul, who was the son of a Canaanite woman; these were the families of Simeon.

16These were the names of the sons of Levi in order of seniority: Gershon, Kohath and Merari. Levi lived to be a hundred and thirty-seven.

17Sons of Gershon, family by family: Libni and Shimei.

18Sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel. Kohath lived to be a hundred and thirty-three.

19Sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi.

These were the families of Levi in order of seniority. 20Amram married his father's sister Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron and Moses. Amram lived to be a hundred and thirty-seven.

21Sons of Izhar: Korah, Nepheg and Zichri.

22Sons of Uzziel: Mishael, Elzaphan and Sithri.

23Aaron married Elisheba, who was the daughter of Amminadab and the sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.

24Sons of Korah: Assir, Elkanah and Abiasaph; these were the Korahite families.

25Eleazar son of Aaron married one of the daughters of Putiel, and she bore him Phinehas. These were the heads of the Levite families, family by family.

26It was this Aaron, together with Moses, to whom the LORD said, 'Bring the Israelites out of Egypt, mustered in their tribal hosts.' 27These were the men who told Pharaoh king of Egypt to let the Israelites leave Egypt. It was this same Moses and Aaron.

Moses and Aaron: God's command.

28WHEN THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES in Egypt 29he said, 'I am the LORD. Tell Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say to you.' 30Moses made answer in the presence of the LORD, 'I am a halting speaker; how will Pharaoh listen to me?'


  7.

1The LORD answered Moses, 'See now, I have made you like a god for Pharaoh, with your brother Aaron as your spokesman. 2You must tell your brother Aaron all I bid you say, and he will tell Pharaoh, and Pharaoh will let the Israelites go out of his country; 3but I will make him stubborn. Then will I show sign after sign and portent after portent in the land of Egypt. 4But Pharaoh will not listen to you, so I will assert my power in Egypt, and with mighty sets of judgement I will bring my people, the Israelites, out of Egypt in their tribal hosts. 5When I put forth my power against the Egyptians and bring the Israelites out from them, then Egypt will know that I am the LORD.' 6So Moses and Aaron did exactly as the LORD had commanded. 7At the time when they spoke to Pharaoh, Moses was eighty years old and Aaron eighty-three.

Aaron's rod.

8The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, 9'If Pharaoh demands some portent from you, then vou, Moses, must say to Aaron, "Take your staff and throw it down in front of Pharaoh, and it will turn into a serpent." ' 10When Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh, they did as the LORD had told them. Aaron threw down his staff in front of Pharaoh and his courtiers, and it turned into a serpent. 11At this Pharaoh summoned the wise men and the sorcerers, and the Egyptian magicians too did the same thing by their spells. 12Every man threw his staff down, and each staff turned into a serpent; but Aaron's staff swallowed up theirs. 13Pharaoh, however, was obstinate; as the LORD had foretold, he would not listen to Moses and Aaron.

The plagues - blood.

14Then the LORD said to Moses, 'Pharaoh is obdurate: he has refused to set the people free. 15Go to him in the morning on his way out to the river. Stand and wait on the bank of the Nile to meet him, and take with you the staff that turned into a snake. 16Say this to him: "The LORD the God of the Hebrews sent me to bid you let his people go in order to worship him in the wilderness. So far you have not listened to his words; 17so now the LORD says, 'By this you shall know that I am the LORD. With this rod that I have in my hand, I shall now strike the water in the Nile and it will be changed into blood. 18The fish will die and the river will stink, and the Egyptians will be unable to drink water from the Nile." ' 19The LORD then told Moses to say to Aaron, 'Take your staff and stretch your hand out over the waters of Egypt, its rivers and its streams, and over every pool and cistern, to turn them into blood. There shall be blood throughout the whole of Egypt, blood even in their wooden bowl and jars of stone.' 20So Moses and Aaron did as the LORD had commanded. He lifted up his stuff and struck the water of the Nile in the sight of Pharaoh and his courtiers, and all the water was changed into blood. 21The fish died and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood everywhere in Egypt. 22But the Egyptian magicians did the same thing by their spells; and still Pharaoh remained obstinate, as the LORD had foretold, and did not listen to Moses and Aaron. 23He turned away, went into his house and dismissed the matter from his mind. 24Then the Egyptians all dug for drinking water round about the river, because they could not drink from the waters of the Nile itself. 25This lasted for seven days from the time when the LORD struck the Nile.


  8. The plagues - frogs.

1The LORD then told Moses to go into Pharaoh's presence and say to him, 'These are the words of the LORD: "Let my people go in order to worship me. 2If you refuse to let them go, I will plague the whole of your territory with frogs. 3The Nile shall swarm with them. They shall come up from the river into your house, into your bedroom and on to your bed, into the houses of your courtiers and your people, into your ovens and your kneading-troughs. 4The frogs shall clamber over you, your people, and your courtiers." ' 5Then the LORD told Moses to say to Aaron, 'Take your staff in your hand and stretch it out over the rivers, streams, and pools, to bring up frogs upon the land of Egypt.' 6So Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered all the land. 7The magicians did the same thing by their spells: they too brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt. 8Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron. 'Pray to the LORD', he said, 'to take the frogs away from me and my people, and I will let the people go to sacrifice to the LORD.' 9Moses said, 'Of your royal favour, appoint a time when I may intercede for you and your courtiers and people, so that you and your houses may be rid of the frogs, and none be left except in the Nile.' 10'Tomorrow', Pharaoh said. 'It shall be as you say,' replied Moses, 'so that you may know there is no one like our God, the LORD. 11The frogs shall depart from you, from your houses, your courtiers, and your people: none shall be left except in the Nile.' 12Moses and Aaron left Pharaoh's presence, and Moses appealed to the LORD to remove the frogs which he had brought on Pharaoh. 13The LORD did as Moses had asked, and in house and courtyard and in the open the frogs all perished. 14They piled them into countless heaps and the land stank; 15but when Pharaoh found that he was given relief he became obdurate; as the LORD had foretold, he did not listen to Moses and Aaron.

The plagues - gnats.

16The LORD then told Moses to say to Aaron, 'Stretch out your staff and strike the dust on the ground, and it will turn into maggots throughout the land of Egypt', 17and they obeyed. Aaron stretched out his staff and struck the dust, and it turned into maggots on man and beast. All the dust turned into maggots throughout the land of Egypt. 18The magicians tried to produce maggots in the same way by their spells, but they failed. The maggots were everywhere, on man and beast. 19'It is the finger of God', said the magicians to Pharaoh, but Pharaoh remained obstinate; as the LORD had foretold, he did not listen to them.

The plagues - flies.

20The LORD told Moses to rise early in the morning and stand in Pharaoh's path as he went out to the river and to say to him, 'These are the words of the LORD: "Let my people go in order to worship me. 21If you do not let my people go, I will send swarms of flies upon you, your courtiers, your people, and your houses. The houses of the Egyptians shall be filled with the swarms and so shall all the land they live in, 22but on that day I will make an exception of Goshen, the land where my people live: there shall be no swarms there. Thus you shall know that I, the LORD, am here in the land. 23I will make a distinction between my people and yours. Tomorrow this sign shall appear." ' 24The LORD did this; dense swarms of flies infested Pharaoh's house and those of his courtiers; throughout Egypt the land was threatened with ruin by the swarms. 25Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, 'Go and sacrifice to your God, but in this country.' 26'That we cannot do,' replied Moses, 'because the victim we shall sacrifice to the LORD our God is an abomination to the Egyptians. If the Egyptians see us offer such an animal, will they not stone us to death? 27We must go a three days' journey into the wilderness to sacrifice to the LORD our God, as he commands us.' 28'I will let you go,' said Pharaoh, 'and you shall sacrifice to your God in the wilderness; only do not go far. Now intercede for me.' 29Moses answered, 'As soon as I leave you I will intercede with the LORD. Tomorrow the swarms will depart from Pharaoh, his courtiers, and his people. Only let not Pharaoh trifle any more with the people by preventing them from going to sacrifice to the LORD.' 30Then Moses left Pharaoh and interceded with the LORD. 31The LORD did as Moses had said; he removed the swarms from Pharaoh, his courtiers, and his people; not one was left. 32But once again Pharaoh became obdurate and did not let the people go.


  9. The plagues - death of the animals.

1The LORD said to Moses, 'Go into Pharaoh's presence and say to him, "These are the words of the LORD the God of the Hebrews: 'Let my people go in order to worship me.' 2If you refuse to let them go and still keep your hold on them, 3the LORD will strike your grazing herds, your horses and assses, your camels, cattle, and sheep with a terrible pestilence. 4But the LORD will make a distinction between Israel's herds and those of the Egyptians. Of all that belong to Israel not a single one shall die." ' 5The LORD fixed a time and said, 'Tomorrow I will do this throughout the land.' 6The next day the LORD struck. All the herds of Egypt died, but from the herds of the Israelites not one single beast died. 7Pharaoh inquired and was told that not a beast from the herds of Israel had died, and yet he remained obdurate and did not let the people go.

The plagues - boils.

8The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, 'Take handfuls of soot from a kiln. Moses shall toss it into the air in Pharaoh's sight, 9and it will turn into a fine dust over the whole of Egypt. All over Egypt it will become festering boils on man and beast.' 10They took the soot from the kiln and stood before Pharaoh. Moses tossed it into the air and it produced festering boils on man and beast. 11The magicians were no match for Moses because of the boils, which attacked them and all the Egyptians. 12But the LORD made Pharaoh obstinate; as the LORD had foretold to Moses, he did not listen to Moses and Aaron.

The plagues - hail.

13The LORD then told Moses to rise early in the morning, present himself before Pharaoh, and say to him, 'These are the words of the LORD the God of the Hebrews: "Let my people go in order to worship me. 14This time I will strike home with all my plagues against you, your courtiers, and your people, so that you may know that there is none like me in all the earth. 15By now I could have stretched out my hand, and struck you and your people with pestilence, and you would have vanished from the earth. 16I have let you live only to show you my power and to spread my fame throughout the land. 17Since you still obstruct my people and will not let them go, 18tomorrow at this time I will send a violent hailstorm, such as has never been in Egypt from its first beginnings until now. 19Send now and bring your herds under cover, and everything you have out in the open field. If anything, whether man or beast, which happens to be in the open, is not brought in, the hail will fall on it, and it will die." ' 20Those of Pharaoh's subjects who feared. the word of the LORD hurried their slaves and cattle into their houses. 21But those who did not take to heart the word of the LORD left their slaves and cattle in the open.

22The LORD said to Moses, 'Stretch out your hand towards the sky to bring down hail on the whole land of Egypt, on man and beast and every growing thing throughout the land.' 23Moses stretched out his staff towards the sky, and the LORD sent thunder and hail, with fire flashing down to the ground. 24The LORD rained down hail on the land of Egypt, hail and fiery flashes through the hail, so heavy that there had been nothing like it in all Egypt from the time that Egypt became a nation. 25Throughout Egypt the hail struck everything in the fields, both man and beast; it beat down every growing thing and shattered every tree. 26Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.

27Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron. 'This time I have sinned,' he said, 'the LORD is in the right; I and my people are in the wrong. 28Intercede with the LORD, for we can bear no more of this thunder and hail. I will let you go; you need wait no longer.' 29Moses said, 'When I leave the city I will spread out my hands in prayer to the LORD. The thunder shall cease, and there shall be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth is the LORD's. 30But you and your subjects—I know that you do not yet fear the LORD God.' 31(The flax and barley were destroyed because the barley was in the ear and the flax in bud, 32but the wheat and spelt were not destroyed because they come later.) 33Moses left Pharaoh's presence, went out of the city and lifted up his hands to the LORD in prayer: the thunder and hail ceased, and no more rain fell. 34When Pharaoh saw that the downpour, the hail, and the thunder had ceased, he sinned again, he and his courtiers, and became obdurate. 35So Pharaoh remained obstinate; as the LORD had foretold through Moses, he did not let the people go.


  10. The plagues - locusts.

1Then the LORD said to Moses, 'Go into Pharaoh's presence. I have made him and his courtiers obdurate, so that I may show these my signs among them, 2and so that you can tell your children and grandchildren the story: how I made sport of the Egyptians, and what signs I showed among them. Thus you will know that I am the LORD.' 3Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh and said to him, 'These are the words of the LORD the God of the Hebrews: "How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go in order to worship me. 4If you refuse to let my people go, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your country. 5They shall cover the face of the land so that it cannot be seen. They shall eat up the last remnant left you by the hail. They shall devour every tree that grows in your countryside. 6Your houses and your courtiers' houses, every house in Egypt, shall be full of them; your fathers never saw the like not their fathers before them; such a thing has not happened from their time until now. " ' He turned and left Pharaoh's presence. 7Pharaoh's courtiers said to him, 'How long must we be caught in this man's toils? Let their menfolk go and worship the LORD their God. Do you not know by now that Egypt is ruined?' 8So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, 'You may go and worship the LORD your God; but who exactly is to go?' 9'All,' said Moses, 'young and old, boys and girls, sheep and cattle; for we have to keep the LORD's pilgrim-feast.' 10Pharaoh replied, 'Very well then; take your dependants with you when you go; and the LORD be with you. But beware, there is trouble in store for you. 11No, your menfolk may go and worship the LORD, for that is all you asked.' So they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.

12Then the LORD said to Moses, 'Stretch out your hand over Egypt so that the locusts may come and invade the land and devour all the vegetation in it, everything the hail has left.' 13Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and the LORD sent a wind roaring in from the east all that day and all that night. When morning came, the east wind had brought the locusts. 14They invaded the whole land of Egypt, and settled on all its territory in swarms so dense that the like of them had never been seen before, nor ever will be again. 15They covered the surface of the whole land till it was black with them. They devoured all the vegetation and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had spared. There was no green left on tree or plant throughout all Egypt. 16Pharaoh hastily summoned Moses and Aaron. 'I have sinned against the LORD your God and against you', he said. 17'Forgive my sin, I pray, just this once. Intercede with the LORD your God and beg him only to remove this deadly plague from me.' 18Moses left Pharaoh and interceded with the LORD. 19The LORD changed the wind into a westerly gale, which carried the locusts away and swept them into the Red Sea Or the Sea of Reeds. There was not at single locust left in all the territory of Egypt. 20But the LORD made Pharaoh obstinate, and he did not let the Israelites go.

The plagues - darkness.

21Then the LORD said to Moses, 'Stretch out your hand towards the sky so that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, darkness that can be felt.' 22Moses stretched out his hand towards the sky, and it became pitch dark throughout the land of Egypt for three days. 23Men could not see one another; for three days no one stirred from where he was. But there was no darkness wherever the Israelites lived. 24Pharaoh summoned Moses. 'Go', he said, 'and worship the LORD. Your dependants may go with you; but your flocks and herds must be left with us.' 25But Moses said, 'No, you must yourself supply us with animals for sacrifice and whole-offering to the LORD our God; 26and our own flocks must go with us too—not a hoof must be left behind. We may need animals from our own flocks to worship the LORD our God; we ourselves cannot tell until we are there how we are to worship the LORD.' 27The LORD made Pharaoh obstinate, and he refused to let them go. 28(28 29) 'Out! Pester me no more!' he said to Moses. 'Take care you do not see my face again, for on the day you do, you die.' 'You are right,' said Moses; 'I shall never see your face again.'


  11. Moses announces the death of the firstborn.

1Then the LORD said to Moses, 'One last plague I will bring upon Pharaoh and Egypt. After that he will let you go; he will send you packing, as a man dismisses a rejected bride. 2Let the people be told that men and women alike should ask their neighbours for jewellery of silver and gold.' 3The LORD made the Egyptians well-disposed towards them, and, moreover, Moses was a very great man in Egypt in the eyes of Pharaoh's courtiers and of the people.

4Moses then said, 'These are the words of the LORD: "At midnight I will go out among the Egyptians. 5Every first-born creature in the land of Egypt shall die: the first-born of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, the first-born of the slave-girl at the handmill, and all the first-born of the cattle.
6All Egypt will send up a great cry of anguish, a cry the like of which has never been heard before, nor ever will be again. 7But among all Israel not a dog's tongue shall be so much as scratched, no man or beast be hurt." Thus you shall know that the LORD does make a distinction between Egypt and Israel. 8Then all these courtiers of yours will come down to me, prostrate themselves and cry, "Go away, you and all the people who follow at your heels." After that I will go away.' Then Moses left Pharaoh's presence hot with anger.

9The LORD said to Moses, 'Pharaoh will not listen to you; I will therefore show still more portents in the land of Egypt.' 10All these portents had Moses and Aaron shown in the presence of Pharaoh, and yet the LORD made him obstinate, and he did not let the Israelites leave the country.


  12. THE PASSOVER.

1THE LORD SAID TO MOSES and Aaron in Egypt: 2This month is for you the first of months; you shall make it the first month of the year. 3Speak to the whole community of Israel and say to them: On the tenth day of this month let each man take a lamb or a kid for his family, one for each household, 4but if a household is too small for one lamb or one kid, then the man and his nearest neighbour may take one between them. They shall share the cost, taking into account both the number of persons and the amount each of them eats. 5Your lamb or kid must be without blemish, a yearling male. You may take equally a sheep or a goat. 6You must have it in safe keeping until the fourteenth day of this month, and then all the assembled community of Israel shall slaughter the victim between dusk and dark. 7They must take some of the blood and smear it on the two door-posts and on the lintel of every house in which they eat the lamb. 8On that night they shall eat the fleshroast on the fire; they shall eat it with unleavened cakes and bitter herbs. 9You are not to eat any of it raw or even boiled in water, but roasted, head, shins, and entrails. 10You shall not leave any of it till morning ; if anything is left over until morning, it must be destroyed by fire.

11This is the way in which you must eat it: you shall have your belt fastened, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand, and you must eat in urgent haste. It is the LORD's Passover. 12On that night I shall pass through the land of Egypt and kill every first-born of man and beast. Thus will I execute judgement, I the LORD, against all the gods of Egypt. 13And as for you, the blood will be a sign on the houses in which you are: when I see the blood I will pass over Or stand guard over you; the mortal blow shall not touch you, when I strike the land of Egypt.

THE FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD.

14You shall keep this day as a day of remembrance, and make it a pilgrim-feast, a festival of the LORD; you shall keep it generation after generation as a rule for all time. 15For seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes. On the very first day you shall rid your houses of leaven; from the first day to the seventh anyone who eats leavened bread shall be outlawed from Israel. 16On the first day there shall be a sacred assembly and on the seventh day there shall be a sacred assembly: on these days no work shall be done, except what must be done to provide food for everyone; and that will be allowed. 17You will observe these commandments because this was the very day on which I brought you out of Egypt in your tribal hosts. You shall observe this day from generation to generation as a rule for all time.

18You shall eat unleavened cakes in the first month from the evening which begins the fourteenth day until the evening which begins the twenty-first day. 19For seven days no leaven may be found in your houses, for anyone who eats anything fermented shall be outlawed from the community of Israel, be he foreigner or native. 20You must eat nothing fermented. Wherever you live you must eat your cakes unleavened.

The first Passover.

21Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, 'Go at once and get sheep for your families and slaughter the Passover. 22Then take a bunch of marjoram Or hyssop, dip it in the blood in the basin Or on the threshold and smear some blood from the basin Or from the threshold on the Iintel and the two door-posts. Nobody may go out through the door of his house till morning. 23The LORD will go through Egypt and strike it, but when he sees the blood on the lintel and the two door-posts, he will pass over that door and will not let the destroyer enter your houses to strike you. 24You shall keep this as a rule for you and your children for all time. 25When you enter the land which the LORD will give you as he promised, you shall observe this rite. 26Then, when your children ask you, "What is the meaning of this rite?" 27you shall say, "It is the LORD's Passover, for he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt when he struck the Egyptians but spared our houses." ' The people bowed down and prostrated themselves.

The death of the firstborn.

28The Israelites went and did all that the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron; 29and by midnight the LORD had struck down every first-born in Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh on his throne to the first-born of the captive in the dungeon, and the first-born of cattle. 30Before night was over Pharaoh rose, he and all his courtiers and all the Egyptians, and a great cry of anguish went up, because not a house in Egypt was without its dead. 31Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron while it was still night and said, 'Up with you! Be off, and leave my people, you and your Israelites. Go and worship the LORD, as you ask; 32take your sheep and cattle, and go; and ask God's blessing on me also.' 33The Egyptians urged on the people and hurried them out of the country, 'Or else', they said, 'we shall all be dead.' 34The people picked up their dough before it was leavened, wrapped their kneading-troughs in their cloaks, and slung them on their shoulders. 35Meanwhile the Israelites had done as Moses had told them, asking the Egyptians for jewellery of silver and gold and for clothing. 36As the LORD had made the Egyptians well-disposed towards them, they let them have what they asked; in this way they plundered the Egyptians.

THE EXODUS.

37THE ISRAELITES SET OUT from Rameses on the way to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, not counting dependants. 38And with them too went a large company of every kind, and cattle in great numbers, both flocks and herds. 39The dough they had brought from Egypt they baked into unleavened cakes, because there was no leaven; for they had been driven out of Egypt and allowed no time even to get food ready for themselves.

40The Israelites had been settled in Egypt for four hundred and thirty years. 41At the end of four hundred and thirty years, on this very day, all the tribes of the LORD came out of Egypt. 42This was a night of vigil as the LORD waited to bring them out of Egypt. It is the LORD's night; all Israelites keep their vigil generation after generation.

How the Passover should be celebrated.

43The LORD said to Moses and Aaron: These are the rules for the Passover. No foreigner may partake of it; 44any bought slave may eat it if you have circumcised him; 45no stranger or hired man may eat it. 46Each lamb must be eaten inside the one house, and you must not take any of the fleshoutside the house. You must not break a single bone of it. 47The whole community of Israel shall keep this feast. 48If there are aliens living with you and they are to keep the Passover to the LORD, every male of them must be circumcised, and then he can take part; he shall rank as native-born. No one who is uncircumcised may eat of it. 49The same law shall apply both to the native-born and to the alien who is living among you.

50The Israelites did all that the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron; and 51on this very day the LORD brought the Israelites out of Egypt mustered in their tribal hosts.


  13. Dedication of the firstborn.

1The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 2'Every first-born, the first birth of every womb among the Israelites, you must dedicate to me, both man and beast; it is mine.'

The feast of Unleavened Bread.

3Then Moses said to the people, 'Remember this day, the day on which you have come out of Egypt, the land of slavery, because the LORD by the strength of his hand has brought you out. No leaven may be eaten this day, 4for today, in the month of Abib, is the day of your exodus; 5and when the LORD has brought you into the country of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites, the land which he swore to your forefathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, then you must observe this rite in this same month. 6For seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes, and on the seventh day there shall be a pilgrim-feast of the LORD. 7Only unleavened cakes shall be eaten during the seven days; nothing fermented and no leaven shall be seen throughout your territory. 8On that day you shall tell your son, "This commemorates what the LORD did for me when I came out of Egypt." 9You shall have the record of it as a sign upon your hand, and upon your forehead as a reminder, to make sure that the law of the LORD is always on your lips, because the LORD with a strong hand brought you out of Egypt. 10This is a rule, and you shall keep it at the appointed time from year to year.

The firstborn offering.

11'When the LORD has brought you into the land of the Canaanites as he swore to you and to your forefathers, and given it to you, 12you shall surrender to the LORD the first birth of every womb; and of all first-born offspring of your cattle the males belong to the LORD. 13Every first-born male ass you may redeem with a kid or lamb, but if you do not redeem it, you must break its neck. Every first~born among your sons you must redeem. 14When in time to come your son asks you what this means, you shall say to him, "By the strength of his hand the LORD brought us out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery. 15When Pharaoh proved stubborn and refused to let us go, the LORD killed all the first-born in Egypt both man and beast. That is why I sacrifice to the LORD the first birth of every womb if it is a male and redeem every first-born of my sons. 16You shall have the record of it as a sign upon your hand, and upon your forehead as a phylactery, because by the strength of his hand the LORD brought us out of Egypt." '

The Pillar of Cloud & the Pillar of Fire.

17NOW WHEN PHARAOH LET THE PEOPLE GO, God did not guide them by the road towards the Philistines, although that was the shortest; for he said, 'The people may change their minds when they see war before them, and turn back to Egypt.' 18So God made them go round by way of the wilderness towards the Red Sea; and the fifth generation of Israelites departed from Egypt.

19Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, because Joseph had exacted an oath from the Israelites: 'Some day', he said, 'God will show his care for you, and then, as you go, you must take my bones with you.'

20They set out from Succoth and encamped at Etham on the edge of the wilderness. 21And all the time the LORD went before them, by day a pillar of cloud to guide them on their journey, by night a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel night and day. 22The pillar of cloud never left its place in front of the people by day, nor the pillar of fire by night.


  14. Crossing the Red Sea.

1The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 2'Speak to the Israelites: they are to turn back and encamp before Pi-hahiroth Or where the desert tracks begin, between Migdol and the sea to the east of Baal-zephon; your camp shall be opposite, by the sea. 3Pharaoh will then think that the Israelites are finding themselves in difficult country, and are hemmed in by the wilderness. 4I will make Pharaoh obstinate, and he will pursue them, so that I may win glory for myself at the expense of Pharaoh and all his army; and the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD.' The Israelites did as they were bidden.

5When the king of Egypt was told that the Israelites had slipped away, he and his courtiers changed their minds completely, and said, 'What have we done? We have let our Israelite slaves go free!' 6So Pharaoh put horses to his chariot, and took his troops with him. 7He took six hundred picked chariots and all the other chariots of Egypt, with a commander in each. 8Then Pharaoh king of Egypt, made obstinate by the LORD, pursued the Israelites as they marched defiantly away. 9The Egyptians, all Pharaoh's chariots and horses, cavalry and infantry, pursued them and overtook them encamped beside the sea by Pi-hahiroth to the east of Baal-zephon. 10Pharaoh was almost upon them when the Israelites looked up and saw the Egyptians close behind. In their terror they clamoured to the LORD for help and said to Moses, 11'Were there no graves in Egypt, that you should have brought us here to die in the wilderness? See what you have done to us by bringing us out of Egypt! 12Is not this just what we meant when we said in Egypt, "Leave us alone; let us be slaves to the Egyptians"? We would rather be slaves to the Egyptians than die here in the wilderness.' 13'Have no fear,' Moses answered; 'stand firm and see the deliverance that the LORD will bring you this day; for as sure as you see the Egyptians now, you will never see them again. 14The LORD will fight for you; so hold your peace.'

15The LORD said to Moses, 'What is the meaning of this clamour? Tell the Israelites to strike camp. 16And you shall raise high your staff, stretch out your hand over the sea and cleave it in two, so that the Israelites can pass through the sea on dry ground. 17For my part I will make the Egyptians obstinate and they will come after you; thus will I win glory for myself at the expense of Pharaoh and his army, chariots and cavalry all together. 18The Egyptians will know that I am the LORD when I win glory for myself at the expense of their Pharaoh, his chariots and cavalry.'

19The angel of God, who had kept in front of the Israelites, moved away to the rear. The pillar of cloud moved from the front and took its place behind them 20and so came between the Egyptians and the Israelites. And the cloud brought on darkness and early nightfall, so that contact was lost throughout the night.

21Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the LORD drove the sea away all night with a strong east wind and turned the sea-bed into dry land. The waters were torn apart, 22and the Israelites went through the sea on the dry ground, while the waters made a wall for them to right and to left. 23The Egyptians went in pursuit of them far into the sea, all Pharaoh's horse, his chariots, and his cavalry. 24In the morning watch the LORD looked down on the Egyptian army through the pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw them into a panic. 25He clogged their chariot wheels and made them lumber along heavily, so that the Egyptians said, 'It is the LORD fighting for Israel against Egypt; let us flee .' 26Then the LORD said to Moses, 'Stretch out your hand over the sea, and let the water flow back over the Egyptians, their chariots and their cavalry.' 27So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and at daybreak the water returned to its accustomed place; but the Egyptians were in flight as it advanced, and the LORD swept them out into the sea. 28The water flowed back and covered all Pharaoh's army, the chariots and the cavalry, which had pressed the pursuit into the sea. Not one man was left alive. 29Meanwhile the Israelites had passed along the dry ground through the sea, with the water making a wall for them to right and to left. 30That day the LORD saved Israel from the power of Egypt, and the Israelites saw the Egyptians lying dead on the sea-shore. 31When Israel saw the great power which the LORD had put forth against Egypt, all the people feared the LORD, and they put their faith in him and in Moses his servant.


  15. The song of Moses.

1Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to the LORD:

The song of Miriam.

19For Pharaoh's horse, both chariots and cavalry, went into the sea, and the LORD brought back the waters over them, but Israel had passed through the sea on dry ground. 20And Miriam the prophetess, Aaron's sister, took up her tambourine, and all the women followed her, dancing to the sound of tambourines; 21and Miriam sang them this refrain:

Marah (bitter water) to Elim.

22MOSES LED ISRAEL FROM THE RED SEA out into the wilderness of Shur. For three days they travelled through the wilderness without finding water. 23They came to Marah, but could not drink the Marah water because it was bitter; that is why the place was called Marah. 24The people complained to Moses and asked, 'What are we to drink?' 25Moses cried to the LORD, and the LORD showed him a log which he threw into the water, and then the water became sweet.

It was there that the LORD laid down a precept and rule of life; there he put them to the test. 26He said, 'If only you will obey the LORD your God, if you will do what is right in his eyes, if you will listen to his commands and keep all his statutes, then I will never bring upon you any of the sufferings which I brought on the Egyptians; for I the LORD am your healer.'

27They came to Elim, where there were twelve springs and seventy palm-trees, and there they encamped beside the water.


  16. Elim to the desert of Sin - Manna and quails.

1The whole community of the Israelites set out from Elim and came into the wilderness of Sin, which lies between Elim and Sinai. This was on the fifteenth day of the second month after they had left Egypt.

2The Israelites complained to Moses and Aaron in the wilderness 3and said, 'If only we had died at the LORD's hand in Egypt, where we sat round the fleshpots and had plenty of bread to eat! But you have brought us out into this wilderness to let this whole assembly starve to death.' 4The LORD said to Moses, 'I will rain down bread from heaven for you. Each day the people shall go out and gather a day's supply, so that I can put them to the test and see whether they will follow my instructions or not. 5But on the sixth day, when they prepare what they bring in, it shall be twice as much as they have gathered on other days.' 6Moses and Aaron then said to all the Israelites, 'In the evening you will know that it was the LORD who brought you out of Egypt, 7and in the morning you will see the glory of the LORD, because he has heeded your complaints against him; it is not against us that you bring your complaints; we are nothing.' 8'You shall know this', Moses said, 'when the LORD, in answer to your complaints, gives you fleshto eat in the evening, and in the morning bread in plenty. What are we? It is against the LORD that you bring your complaints, and not against us.'

9Moses told Aaron to say to the whole community of Israel, 'Come into the presence of the LORD, for he has heeded your complaints.' 10While Aaron was speaking to the community of the Israelites, they. looked towards the wilderness, and there was the glory of the LORD appearing in the cloud. 11The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 12'I have heard the complaints of the Israelites. Say to them, "Between dusk and dark you will have fleshto eat and in the morning bread in plenty. You shall know that I the LORD am your God." '

13That evening a flock of quails flew in and settled all over the camp, and in the morning a fall of dew lay all around it. 14When the dew was gone, there in the wilderness, fine flakes appeared, fine as hoar-frost on the ground. 15When the Israelites saw it, they said to one another, 'What is that Heb man-hu (cp v 31)', because they did not know what it was. Moses said to them, 'That is the bread which the LORD has given you to eat. 16This is the command the LORD has given: "Each of you is to gather as much as he can eat: let every man take an omer a head for every person in his tent." ' 17The Israelites did this, and they gathered, some more, some less, 18but when they measured it by the omer, those who had gathered more had not too much, and those who had gathered less had not too little. Each had just as much as he could eat. 19Moses said, 'No one may keep any of it till morning.' 20Some, however, did not listen to Moses; they kept part of it till morning, and it became full of maggots and stank, and Moses was angry with them. 21Each morning every man gathered as much as he could eat, and when the sun grew hot, it melted away. 22On the sixth day they gathered twice as much food, two omers each. All the chiefs of the community came and told Moses. 23'This', he answered, 'is what the LORD has said: "Tomorrow is a day of sacred rest, a sabbath holy to the LORD." So bake what you want to bake now, and boil what you want to boil; put aside what remains over and keep it safe till morning.' 24So they put it aside till morning as Moses had commanded, and it did not stink, nor did maggots appear in it. 25'Eat it today,' said Moses, 'because today is a sabbath of the LORD. Today you will find none outside. 26For six days you may gather it, but on the seventh day, the sabbath, there will be none.'

27Some of the people did go out to gather it on the seventh day, but they found none. 28The LORD said to Moses, 'How long will you refuse to obey my commands and instructions? 29The LORD has given you the sabbath, and so he gives you two days' food every sixth day. Let each man stay where he is ; no one may stir from his home on the seventh day.' 30And the people kept the sabbath on the seventh day.

31Israel called the food manna; it was white, like coriander seed, and it tasted like a wafer made with honey.

32'This', said Moses, 'is the command which the LORD has given: "Take a full omer of it to be kept for future generations, so that they may see the bread with which I fed you in the wilderness when I brought you out of Egypt." ' 33So Moses said to Aaron, 'Take a jar and fill it with an omer of manna, and store it in the presence of the LORD to be kept for future generations.' 34Aaron did as the LORD had commanded Moses, and stored it before the Testimony for safe keeping. 35The Israelites ate the manna for forty years until they came to a land where they could settle; they ate it until they came to the border of Canaan. (An omer is one tenth of an ephah.)


  17. Sin to Massah-Meridah - water from the rock.

1The whole community of Israel set out from the wilderness of Sin and travelled by stages as the LORD told them. They encamped at Rephidim, where there was no water for the people to drink, 2and a dispute arose between them and Moses. When they said, 'Give us water to drink', Moses said, 'Why do you dispute with me? Why do you challenge the LORD?' 3There the people became so thirsty that they raised an outcry against Moses: 'Why have you brought us out of Egypt with our children and our herds to let us all die of thirst?' 4Moses cried to the LORD, 'What shall I do with these people? In a moment they will be stoning me.' 5The LORD answered, 'Go forward ahead of the people; take with you some of the elders of Israel and the staff with which you struck the Nile, and go. 6You will find me waiting for you there, by a rock in Horeb. Strike the rock; water will pour out of it, and the people shall drink.' Moses did this in the sight of the elders of Israel. 7He named the place Massah That is Challenge and Meribah That is Dispute, because the Israelites had disputed with him and challenged the LORD with their question, 'Is the LORD in our midst or not?'

Rephidim - victory over the Amalekites.

8The Amalekites came and attacked Israel at Rephidim. 9Moses said to Joshua, 'Pick your men, and march out tomorrow to fight for us against Amalek; and I will take my stand on the hill-top with the staff of God in my hand.' 10Joshua carried out his orders and fought against Amalek while Moses, Aaron and Hur climbed to the top of the hill. 11Whenever Moses raised his hands Israel had the advantage, and when he lowered his hands Amalek had the advantage. 12But when his arms grew heavy they took a stone and put it under him and, as he sat, Aaron and Hur held up his hands, one on each side, so that his hands remained steady till sunset. 13Thus Joshua defeated Amalek and put its people to the sword.

14The LORD said to Moses, 'Record this in writing, and tell it to Joshua in these words: "I am resolved to blot out all memory of Amalek from under heaven." ' 15(15 16) Moses built an altar, and named it Jehovah-nissi and said, 'My oath upon it: the LORD is at war with Amalek generation after generation.'


  18. Jethro, priest of Midian.

1JETHRO PRIEST OF MIDIAN, father-in-law of Moses, heard all that God had done for Moses and Israel his people, and how the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt. 2When Moses had dismissed his wife Zipporah, Jethro his father-in-law had received her 3and her two sons. The name of the one was Gershom, 'for', said Moses, 'I have become an alien cp 2.22 living in a foreign land'; 4the other's name was Eliezer That is God my help, 'for', he said, 'the God of my father was my help and saved me from Pharaoh's sword.'

5Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, now came to him with his sons and his wife, to the wilderness where he was encamped at the mountain of God. 6Moses was told, 'Here is Jethro, your father-in-law, coming to you with your wife and her two sons.' 7Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, bowed low to him and kissed him, and they greeted one another. When they came into the tent 8Moses told him all that the LORD had done to Pharaoh and to Egypt for Israel's sake, and about all their hardships on the journey, and how the LORD had saved them. 9Jethro rejoiced at all the good the LORD had done for Israel in saving them from the power of Egypt. 10He said, 'Blessed be the LORD who has saved you from the power of Egypt and of Pharaoh. 11Now I know that the LORD is the greatest of all gods, because he has delivered the people from the power of the Egyptians who dealt so arrogantly with them.' 12Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, brought a whole-offering and sacrifices for God; and Aaron and all the elders of Israel came and shared the meal with Jethro in the presence of God.

Appointment of Judges. - Dt.1.9-18

13The next day Moses took his seat to settle disputes among the people, and they were standing round him from morning till evening. 14When Jethro saw all that he was doing for the people, he said, 'What are you doing for all these people? Why do you sit alone with all of them standing round you from morning till evening?' 15'The people come to me', Moses answered, 'to seek God's guidance. 16Whenever there is a dispute among them, they come to me, and I decide between man and man. I declare the statutes and laws of God.' 17But his father-in-law said to Moses, 'This is not the best way to do it. 18You will only wear yourself out and wear out all the people who are here. The task is too heavy for you; you cannot do it by yourself. 19Now listen to me: take my advice, and God be with you. It is for you to be the people's representative before God, and bring their disputes to him. 20You must instruct them in the statutes and laws, and teach them how they must behave and what they must do. 21But you must yourself search for capable, God-fearing men among all the people, honest and incorruptible men, and appoint them over the people as officers over units of a thousand, of a hundred, of fifty or of ten. 22They shall sit as a permanent court for the people; they must refer difficult cases to you but decide simple cases themselves. In this way your burden will be lightened, and they will share it with you. 23If you do this, God will give you strength, and you will be able to go on. And, moreover, this whole people will here and now regain peace and harmony.' 24Moses listened to his father-in-law and did all he had suggested. 25He chose capable men from all Israel and appointed them leaders of the people, officers over units of a thousand, of a hundred, of fifty or of ten. 26They sat as a permanent court, bringing the difficult cases to Moses but deciding simple cases themselves. 27Moses set his father-in-law on his way, and he went back to his own country.


  19. SINAI.

1IN THE THIRD MONTH after Israel had left Egypt prob. rdg, Heb adds on this day, they came to the wilderness of Sinai. 2They set out from Rephidim and entered the wilderness of Sinai, where they encamped, pitching their tents opposite the mountain. 3Moses went up the mountain of God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain and said, 'Speak thus to the house of Jacob, and tell this to the sons of Israel: 4You have seen with your own eyes what I did to Egypt, and how I have carried you on eagles' wings and brought you here to me. 5If only you will now listen to me and keep my covenant, then out of all peoples you shall become my special possession; for the whole earth is mine. 6You shall be my kingdom of priests, my holy nation. These are the words you shall speak to the Israelites.'

7Moses came and summoned the elders of the people and set before them all these commands which the LORD had laid upon him. 8The people all answered together, 'Whatever the LORD has said we will do.' Moses brought this answer back to the LORD. 9The LORD said to Moses, 'I am now coming to you in a thick cloud, so that I may speak to you in the hearing of the people, and their faith in you may never fail.' Moses told the LORD what the people had said, 10and the LORD said to him, 'Go to the people and hallow them today and tomorrow and make them wash their clothes. 11They must be ready by the third day, because on the third day the LORD will descend upon Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people. 12You must put barriers round the mountain and say, "Take care not to go up the mountain or even to touch the edge of it." Any man who touches the mountain must be put to death. 13No hand shall touch him Or it, he shall be stoned or shot dead Or hurled to his death: neither man nor beast may live. But when the ram's horn sounds, they may go up the mountain.' 14Moses came down from the mountain to the people. He hallowed them and they washed their clothes. 15He said to the people, 'Be ready by the third day; do not go near a woman.' 16On the third day, when morning came, there were peals of thunder and flashs of lightning, dense cloud on the mountain and a loud trumpet blast; the people in the camp were all terrified.

17Moses brought the people out from the camp to meet God, and they took their stand at the foot of the mountain. 18Mount Sinai was all smoking because the LORD had come down upon it in fire; the smoke went up like the smoke of a kiln; all the people were terrified, 19and the sound of the trumpet grew ever louder. Whenever Moses spoke, God answered him in a peal of thunder in ... thunder: or by voice. 20The LORD came down upon the top of Mount Sinai and summoned Moses to the mountain-top, and Moses went up. 21The LORD said to Moses, 'Go down; warn the people solemnly that they must not force their way through to the LORD to see him, or many of them will perish. 22Even the priests, who have access to the LORD, must hallow themselves, for fear that the LORD may break out against them.' 23Moses answered the LORD, 'The people cannot come up Mount Sinai, because thou thyself didst solemnly warn us to set a barrier to the mountain and so to keep it holy.' 24The LORD therefore said to him, 'Go down; then come up and bring Aaron with you, but let neither priests not people force their way up to the LORD, for fear that he may break out against them.' 25So Moses went down to the people and spoke to them.


  20. The Decalogue.

1God spoke, and these were his words:

2I am the LORD your God who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.

3You shall have no other god Or gods to set against me.

4You shall not make a carved image for yourself nor the likeness of anything in the heavens above, or on the earth below, or in the waters under the earth.

5You shall not bow down to them or worship Or or be led to worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous god. I punish the children for the sins of the fathers to the third and fourth generations of those who hate me. 6But I keep faith with thousands, with with ... with: or for a thousand generations with ... those who love me and keep my commandments.

7You shall not make wrong use of the name of the LORD your God; the LORD will not leave unpunished the man who misuses his name.

8Remember to keep the sabbath day holy. 9You have six days to labour and do all your work. 10But the seventh day is a sabbath of the LORD your God; that day you shall not do any work, you, your son or your daughter, your slave or your slave-girl, your cattle or the alien within your gates; 11for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and on the seventh day he rested. Therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day and declared it holy.

12Honour your father and your mother, that you may live long in the land which the LORD your God is giving you.

13You shall not commit murder.

14You shall not commit adultery.

15You shall not steal.

16You shall not give false evidence against your neighbour.

17You shall not covet your neighbour's house; you shall not covet your neighbour's wife, his slave, his slave-girl, his ox, his ass, or anything that belongs to him.

The people's fear. - Dt.5.22-33

18When all the people saw how it thundered and the lightning flashed, when they heard the trumpet sound and saw the mountain smoking, they trembled and stood at a distance. 19'Speak to us yourself,' they said to Moses, 'and we will listen; but if God speaks to us we shall die.' 20Moses answered, 'Do not be afraid. God has come only to test you, so that the fear of him may remain with you and keep you from sin.' 21So the people stood at a distance, while Moses approached the dark cloud where God was.

Laws about Altars.

22THE LORD SAID TO MOSES, Say this to the Israelites: You know now that I have spoken to you from heaven. 23You shall not make gods of silver to be worshipped as well as me, nor shall you make yourselves gods of gold. 24You shall make an altar of earth for me, and you shall sacrifice on it both your whole-offerings and your shared-offerings, your sheep and your cattle. Wherever I cause my name to be invoked, I will come to you and bless you. 25If you make an altar of stones for me, you must not build it of hewn stones, for if you use a chisel on it, you will profane it. 26You must not mount up to my altar by steps, in case your private parts be exposed on it.


  21. Treatment of Slaves.

1These are the laws you shall set before them:

2When you buy a Hebrew slave, he shall be your slave for six years, but in the seventh year he shall go free and pay nothing.

3If he comes to you alone, he shall go away alone; but if he is married, his wife shall go away with him.

4If his master gives him a wife, and she bears him sons or daughters, the woman and her children shall belong to her master, and the man shall go away alone. 5But if the slave should say, 'I love my master, my wife, and my children, I will not go free', 6then his master shall bring him to God: he shall bring him to the door or the door-post, and his master shall pierce his ear with an awl, and the man shall be his slave for life.

7When a man sells his daughter into slavery, she shall not go free as a male slave may. 8If her master has not had intercourse with her and she does not please him, he shall let her be ransomed. He has treated her unfairly and therefore has no right to sell her to strangers. 9If he assigns her to his son, he shall allow her the rights of a daughter. 10If he takes another woman, he shall not deprive the first of meat, clothes, and conjugal rights. 11If he does not provide her with these three things, she shall go free without any payment.

Laws about violence.

12Whoever strikes another man and kills him shall be put to death. 13But if he did not act with intent, but they met by act of God, the slayer may flee to a place which I will appoint for you. 14But if a man has the presumption to kill another by treachery, you shall take him even from my altar to be put to death.

15Whoever strikes his father or mother shall be put to death.

16Whoever kidnaps a man shall be put to death, whether he has sold him, or the man is found in his possession.

17Whoever reviles his father or mother shall be put to death.

18When men quarrel and one hits another with a stone or with a spade Or fist, and the man is not killed but takes to his bed; 19if he recovers so as to walk about outside with a stick, then the one who struck him has no liability, except that he shall pay for loss of time and shall see that he is cured.

20When a man strikes his slave or his slave-girl with a stick and the slave dies on the spot, he must be punished. 21But he shall not be punished if the slave survives for one day or two, because he is worth money to his master.

22When, in the course of a brawl, a man knocks against a pregnant woman so that she has a miscarriage but suffers no further hurt, then the offender must pay whatever fine the woman's husband demands after assessment.

23Wherever hurt is done, you shall give life for life, 24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25burn for burn, bruise for bruise, wound for wound.

26When a man strikes his slave or slave-girl in the eye and destroys it, he shall let the slave go free in compensation for the eye. 27When he knocks out the tooth of a slave or a slave-girl, he shall let the slave go free in compensation for the tooth.

Incidents involving domestic animals.

28When an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox shall be stoned, and its fleshmay not be eaten ; the owner of the ox shall be free from liability. 29If, however, the ox has for some time past been a vicious animal, and the owner has been duly warned but has not kept it under control, and the ox kills a man or a woman, then the ox shall be stoned, and the owner shall be put to death as well. 30If, however, the penalty is commuted for a money payment, he shall pay in redemption of his life whatever is imposed upon him, 31If the ox gores a son or a daughter, the same rule shall apply. 32If the ox gores a slave or slave-girl, its owner shall pay thirty shekels of silver to their master, and the ox shall be stoned.

33When a man removes the cover of a well Or cistern or digs a well Or cistern and leaves it uncovered, then if an ox or an ass falls into it, 34the owner of the well shall make good the loss. He shall repay the owner of the beast in silver, and the dead beast shall be his.

35When one man's ox butts another's and kills it, they shall sell the live ox, share the price and also share the dead beast. 36But if it is known that the ox has for some time past been vicious and the owner has not kept it under control, he shall make good the loss, ox for ox, but the dead beast is his.


  22. Compensation.

1When a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters or sells it, he shall repay five beasts for the ox and four sheep for the sheep. 2 (2-4) vv2-4 rearranged thus: 3b, 4, 2, 3a He shall pay in full; if he has no means, he shall be sold to pay for the theft. But if the animal is found alive in his possession, be it ox, ass, or sheep, he shall repay two.

If a burglar is caught in the act and is fatally injured, it is not murder; but if he breaks in after sunrise and is fatally injured, then it is murder.

3 4 5When a man burns off a field or a vineyard and lets the fire spread so that it bums another man's field Or When a man uses his field or vineyard for grazing, and lets his beast loose, and it feeds in another man's field, he shall make restitution from his own field according to the yield expected; and if the whole field is laid waste, he shall make restitution from the best part of his own field or vineyard.

6When a fire starts and spreads to a heap of brushwood, so that sheaves, or standing corn, or a whole field is destroyed, he who started the fire shall make full restitution.

7When one man gives another silver or chattels for safe keeping, and they are stolen from that man's house, the thief, if he is found, shall restore twofold. 8But if the thief is not found, the owner of the house shall appear before God, to make a declaration that he has not touched his neighbour's property. 9In every case of law-breaking involving an ox, an ass, or a sheep, a cloak, or any lost property which may be claimed, each party shall bring his case before God; he whom God declares to be in the wrong shall restore twofold to his neighbour.

10When a man gives an ass, an ox, a sheep or any beast into his neighbour's keeping, and it dies or is injured or is carried off, there being no witness, 11the neighbour shall swear by the LORD that he has not touched the man's property. The owner shall accept this, and no restitution shall be made. 12If it has been stolen from him, he shall make restitution to the owner. 13If it has been mauled by a wild beast, he shall bring it in as evidence; he shall not make restitution for what has been mauled.

14When a man borrows a beast from his neighbour and it is injured or dies while its owner is not with it, the borrower shall make full restitution , 15but if the owner is with it, the borrower shall not make restitution. If it was hired, only the hire shall be due.

Moral and religious laws.

16When a man seduces a virgin who is not yet betrothed, he shall pay the bride-price for her to be his wife. 17If her father refuses to give her to him, the seducer shall pay in silver a sum equal to the bride-price for virgins.

18You shall not allow a witch to live.

19Whoever has unnatural connection with a beast shall be put to death.

20Whoever sacrifices to any god but the LORD shall be put to death under solemn ban.

21You shall not wrong an alien, or be hard upon him; you were yourselves aliens in Egypt. 22You shall not ill-treat any widow or fatherless child. 23If you do, be sure that I will listen if they appeal to me; 24my anger will be roused and I will kill you with the sword; your own wives shall become widows and your children fatherless.

25If you advance money to any poor man amongst my people, you shall not act like a money-lender: you must not exact interest in advance from him.

26If you take your neighbour's cloak in pawn, you shall return it to him by sunset, 27because it is his only covering. It is the cloak in which he wraps his body; in what else can he sleep? If he appeals to me, I will listen, for I am full of compassion.

28You shall not revile God, nor curse a chief of your own people.

29You shall not hold back the first of your harvest, whether corn or wine. You shall give me your first-born sons. 30You shall do the same with your oxen and your sheep. They shall stay with the mother for seven days, on the eighth day you shall give them to me.

31You shall be holy to me: you shall not eat the fleshof anything in the open country killed by beasts, but you shall throw it to the dogs.


  23. Justice and fairness.

1You shall not spread a baseless rumour. You shall not make common cause with a wicked man by giving malicious evidence.

2You shall not be led into wrongdoing by the majority, nor, when you give evidence in a lawsuit, shall you side with the majority to pervert justice; 3nor shall you favour the poor man in his suit.

4When you come upon your enemy's ox or ass straying, you shall take it back to him. 5When you see the ass of someone who hates you lying helpless under its load, however unwilling you may be to help it, you must give him a hand with it.

6You shall not deprive the poor man of justice in his suit. 7Avoid all lies, and do not cause the death of the innocent and the guiltless; for I the LORD will never acquit the guilty. 8You shall not accept a bribe, for bribery makes the discerning man blind and the just man give a crooked answer.

9You shall not oppress the alien, for you know how it feels to be an alien, you were aliens yourselves in Egypt.

Sabbath days and years.

10For six years you may sow your land and gather its produce; 11but in the seventh year you shall let it lie fallow and leave it alone. It shall provide food for the poor of your people, and what they leave the wild animals may eat. You shall do likewise with your vineyard and your olive-grove.

12For six days you may do your work, but on the seventh day you shall abstain from work, so that your ox and your ass may rest, and your home-born slave and the alien may refresh themselves.

13Be attentive to every word of mine. You shall not invoke other gods: your lips shall not speak their names.

The three great festivals.

14Three times a year you shall keep a pilgrim-feast to me. 15You shall celebrate the pilgrim-feast of Unleavened Bread for seven days; you shall eat unleavened cakes as I have commanded you, at the appointed time in the month of Abib, for in that month you came out of Egypt.

No one shall come into my presence empty-handed. 16You shall celebrate the pilgrim-feast of Harvest, with the firstfruits of your work in sowing the land, and the pilgrim-feast of Ingathering at the end Or beginning of the year, when you bring in the fruits of all your work on the land. 17These three times a year shall all your males come into the presence of the Lord GOD.

18You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice at the same time as anything leavened.

The fat of my festal offering shall not remain overnight till morning.

19You shall bring the choicest firstfruits of your soil to the house of the LORD your God.

You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk.

The promised land.

20And now I send an angel before you to guard you on your way and to bring you to the place I have prepared. 21Take heed of him and listen to his voice. Do not defy him; he will not pardon your rebelliousness, for my authority rests in him. 22If you will only listen to his voice and do all I tell you, then I will be an enemy to your enemies, and I will harass those who harass you. 23My angel will go before you and bring you to the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, and I will make an end of them. 24You are not to bow down to their gods, nor worship them, nor observe their rites, but you shall tear down all their images and smash their sacred pillars. 25Worship the LORD your God, and he will bless your bread and your water. I will take away all sickness out of your midst. 26None shall miscarry or be barren in your land. I will grant you a full span of life.

27I will send my terror before you and throw into confusion all the peoples whom you find in your path. I will make all your enemies turn their backs. 28I will spread panic before you to drive out in front of you the Hivites, the Canaanites and the Hittites. 29I will not drive them out all in one year, or the land would become waste and the wild beasts too many for you. 30I will drive them out little by little until your numbers have grown enough to take possession of the whole country. 31I will establish your frontiers from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River. I will give the inhabitants of the country into your power, and you shall drive them out before you. 32You shall make no covenant with them and their gods.. 33They shall not stay in your land for fear they make you sin against me; for then you would worship their gods, and in this way you would be ensnared.


  24. The covenant is sealed.

1THEN HE SAID TO MOSES, 'Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. While you are still at a distance, you are to bow down; 2and then Moses shall approach the LORD by himself, but not the others. The people may not go up with him at all.'

3Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, all his laws. The whole people answered with one voice and said, 'We will do all that the LORD has told us.' 4Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD. He rose early in the morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and put up twelve sacred pillars, one for each of the twelve tribes of Israel. 5He then sent the young men of Israel and they sacrificed bulls to the LORD as whole-offerings and shared-offerings. 6Moses took half the blood and put it in basins and the other half he flung against Or upon the altar. 7Then he took the book of the covenant and read it aloud for all the people to hear. They said, 'We will obey, and do all that the LORD has said.' 8Moses then took the blood and flung it over the people, saying, 'This is the blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you on the terms of this book.'

9Moses went up with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, 10and they saw Or they were afraid of the God of Israel. Under his feet there was, as it were, a pavement of sapphire Or lapis lazuli clear blue as the very heavens; 11but the LORD did not stretch out his hand towards the leaders of Israel. They stayed there before God Or They saw God; and; they ate and they drank.

Moses on mount Sinai.

12The LORD said to Moses, 'Come up to me on the mountain, stay there and let me give you the tablets of stone, the law and the commandment, which I have written down that you may teach them.' 13Moses arose with Joshua his assistant and went up the mountain of God; 14he said to the elders, 'Wait for us here until we come back to you. You have Aaron and Hur; if anyone has a dispute, let him go to them.' 15So Moses went up the mountain and a cloud covered it. 16The glory of the LORD rested upon Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered the mountain for six days; on the seventh day he called to Moses out of the cloud. 17The glory of the LORD looked to the Israelites like a devouring fire on the mountain-top. 18Moses entered the cloud and went up the mountain; there he stayed forty days and forty nights.


  25. Offerings. - Ex.35.4-9

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES AND SAID: 2Tell the Israelites to set aside a contribution for me; you shall accept whatever contribution each man shall freely offer. 3This is what you shall accept: gold, silver, copper; 4violet, purple, and scarlet yarn ; fine linen and goats' hair; 5tanned rams' skins, porpoise-hides Strictly sea-cow hides, and acacia-wood, 6oil for the lamp, balsam for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense; 7cornelian and other stones ready for setting in the ephod and the breast-piece Or pouch. 8Make me a sanctuary, and I will dwell among them. 9Make it exactly according to the design I show you, the design for the Tabernacle and for all its furniture. This is how you must make it:

The Ark. - Ex.37.1-9

10Make an Ark, a chest of acacia-wood, two and a half cubits long, one cubit and a half wide, and one cubit and a half high. 11Overlay it with pure gold both inside and out, and put a band of gold all round it. 12Cast four gold rings for it, and fasten them to its four feet, two rings on each side. 13Make poles of acacia-wood and plate them with gold, 14and insert the poles in the rings at the sides of the Ark to lift it. 15The poles shall remain in the rings of the Ark and never be removed. 16Put into the Ark the Tokens of the Covenant Or Testimony, which I shall give you. 17Make a cover of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and one cubit and a half wide. 18Make two gold cherubim of beaten work at the ends of the cover, 19one at each end; make each cherub of one piece with the cover. 20They shall be made with wings outspread and pointing upwards, and shall screen the cover with their wings. They shall be face to face, looking inwards over the cover. 21Put the cover above the Ark, and put into the Ark the Tokens that I shall give you. 22It is there that I shall meet you, and from above the cover, between the two cherubim over the Ark of the Tokens, I shall deliver to you all my commands for the Israelites.

The table for the show-bread. - Ex.37.10-16

23Make a table of acacia-wood, two cubits long, one cubit wide, and one cubit and a half high. 24Overlay it with pure gold, and put a band of gold all round it. 25Make a rim round it a hand's breadth wide, and a gold band round the rim. 26Make four gold rings for the table, and put the rings at the four corners by the legs. 27The rings, which are to receive the poles for carrying the table, must be adjacent to the rim. 28Make the poles of acacia-wood and plate them with gold; they are to be used for carrying the table. 29Make its dishes and saucers, and its flagons and bowls from which drink-offerings may be poured: make them of pure gold. 30Put the Bread of the Presence Or Shewbread on the table, to be always before me.

The lamp-stand. - Ex.37.17-24

31Make a lamp-stand of pure gold. The lamp-stand, stem and branches, shall be of beaten work, its cups, both calyxes and petals, shall be of one piece with it. 32There are to be six branches springing from its sides; three branches of the lamp-stand shall spring from the one side and three branches from the other side. 33There shall be three cups shaped like almond blossoms, with calyx and petals, on the first branch, three cups shaped like almond blossoms, with calyx and petals, on the next branch, and similarly for all six branches springing from the lamp-stand. 34On the main stem of the lamp-stand there are to be four cups shaped like almond blossoms, with calyx and petals, 35and there shall be calyxes of one piece with it under the six branches which spring from the lamp-stand, a single calyx under each pair of branches. 36The calyxes and the branches are to be of one piece with it, all a single piece of beaten work of pure gold. 37Make seven lamps for this and mount them to shed light over the space in front of it. 38Its tongs and firepans shall be of pure gold. 39The lamp-stand and all these fittings shall be made from one talent of pure gold, 40See that you work to the design which you were shown on the mountain.


  26. The tent of the Presence. - Ex.36.8-38

1Make the Tabernacle of ten hangings of finely woven linen, and violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, with cherubim worked on them, all made by a seamster. 2The length of each hanging shall be twenty-eight cubits and the breadth four cubits; all are to be of the same size. 3Five of the hangings shall be joined together, and similarly the other five. 4Make violet loops along the edge of the last hanging in each set, 5fifty for each set ; they must be opposite one another. 6Make fifty gold fasteners, join the hangings one to another with them, and the Tabernacle will be a single whole.

7Make hangings of goats' hair, eleven in all, to form a tent over the Tabernacle; 8each hanging is to be thirty cubits long and four wide; all eleven are to be of the same size. 9Join five of the hangings together, and similarly the other six; then fold the sixth hanging double at the front of the tent. 10Make fifty loops on the edge of the last hanging in the first set and make fifty loops on the joining edge of the second set. 11Make fifty bronze Or copper and so throughout the description of the Tabernacle fasteners, insert them into the loops and join up the tent to make it a single whole. 12The additional length of the tent hanging prob. rdg, Heb adds half the hanging which remains over is to fall over the back of the Tabernacle. 13On each side there will be an additional cubit in the length of the tent hangings; this shall fall over the two sides of the Tabernacle to cover it. 14Make for the tent a cover of tanned rams' skins and an outer covering of porpoise-hides.

15Make for the Tabernacle planks of acacia-wood as uprights, 16each plank ten cubits long and a cubit and a half wide, 17and two tenons for each plank joined to each other. You shall do the same for all the planks of the Tabernacle. 18Arrange the planks thus: twenty planks for the south side, facing southwards, 19with forty silver sockets under them, two sockets under each plank for its two tenons; 20and for the second or northern side of the Tabernacle, twenty planks, 21with forty silver sockets, two under each plank. 22Make six planks for the far end of the Tabernacle on the west. 23Make two planks for the corners of the Tabernacle at the far end; 24at the bottom they shall be alike, and at the top, both alike, they shall fit into a single ring. Do the same for both of them; they shall be for the two corners. 25There shall be eight planks with their silver sockets, sixteen sockets in all, two sockets under each plank severally.

26Make bars of acacia-wood: five for the planks on the one side of the Tabernacle, 27five for the planks on the other side and five for the planks on the far end of the Tabernacle on the west. 28The middle bar is to run along from end to end half-way up the planks. 29Overlay the planks with gold, make rings of gold on them to hold the bars, and plate the bars with gold. 30Set up the Tabernacle according to the design you were shown on the mountain.

31Make a Veil of finely woven linen and violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, with cherubim worked on it, all made by a seamster. 32Fasten it with hooks of gold to four posts of acacia-wood overlaid with gold, standing in four silver sockets. 33Hang the Veil below the fasteners and bring the Ark of the Tokens inside the Veil. Thus the Veil will make a clear separation for you between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies. 34Place the cover over the Ark of the Tokens in the Holy of Holies. 35Put the table outside the Veil and the lamp-stand at the south side of the Tabernacle, opposite the table which you shall put at the north side. 36For the entrance of the tent make a screen of finely woven linen, embroidered with violet, purple, and scarlet. 37Make five posts of acacia-wood for the screen and overlay them with gold; make golden hooks for them and cast five bronze sockets for them.


  27. The Altar. - Ex.38.1-7

1Make the altar of acacia-wood; it shall be square, five cubits long by five cubits broad and three cubits high. 2Let its horns at the four corners be of one piece with it, and overlay it with bronze. 3Make for it pots to take away the fat and the ashes, with shovels, tossing bowls, forks, and firepans, all of bronze. 4Make a grating for it of bronze network, and fit four bronze rings on the network at its four corners. 5Put it below the ledge of the altar, so that the network comes half-way up the altar. 6Make poles of acacia-wood for the altar and overlay them with bronze. 7They shall be inserted in the rings at both sides of the altar to carry it. 8Leave the altar a hollow shell. As you were shown on the mountain, so shall it be made.

The Enclosure of the tent of the Presence. - Ex.38.9-20

9Make the court of the Tabernacle. For the one side, the south side facing southwards, the court shall have hangings of finely woven linen a hundred cubits long, 10with twenty posts and twenty sockets of bronze; the hooks and bands on the posts shall be of silver. 11Similarly all along the north side there shall be hangings a hundred cubits long, with twenty posts and twenty sockets of bronze; the hooks and bands on the posts shall be of silver. 12For the breadth of the court, on the west side, there shall be hangings fifty cubits long, with ten posts and ten sockets. 13On the east side, towards the sunrise, which was fifty cubits, 14hangings shall extend fifteen cubits from one corner, with three posts and three sockets, 15and hangings shall extend fifteen cubits from the other corner, with three posts and three sockets. 16At the gateway of the court, there shall be a screen twenty cubits long of finely woven linen embroidered with violet, purple, and scarlet, with four posts and four sockets. 17The posts all round the court shall have bands of silver, with hooks of silver, and sockets of bronze. 18The length of the court shall be a hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty, and the height five cubits, with finely woven linen and bronze sockets throughout. 19All the equipment needed for serving the Tabernacle, all its pegs and those of the court, shall be of bronze.

Care of the Lamp. - Lv.24.1-4

20You yourself are to command the Israelites to bring you pure oil of pounded olives ready for the regular mounting of the lamp. 21In the Tent of the Presence Or Tent of Meeting outside the Veil that hides the Tokens, Aaron and his sons shall keep the lamp in trim from dusk to dawn before the LORD. This is a rule binding on their descendants among the Israelites for all time.


  28. Priestly garments. - Ex.39.1-7

1You yourself are to summon to your presence your brother Aaron and his sons out of all the Israelites to serve as my priests: Aaron and his sons Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 2For your brother Aaron make sacred vestments, to give him dignity and grandeur. 3Tell all the craftsmen whom I have endowed with skill to make the vestments for the consecration of Aaron as my priest. 4These are the vestments they shall make: a breast-piece, an ephod, a mantle, a chequered tunic, a turban, and a sash. They shall make sacred vestments for Aaron your brother and his sons to wear when they serve as my priests, 5using gold; violet, purple, and scarlet yarn; and fine linen.

6The ephod shall be made of gold, and with violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, and with finely woven linen worked by a seamster. 7It shall have two shoulder-pieces joined back and front. 8The waist-band on it shall be of the same workmanship and material as the fabric of the ephod, and shall be of gold, with violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely woven linen. 9You shall take two cornelians and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel: 10six of their names on the one stone, and the six other names on the second, all in order of seniority. 11With the skill of a craftsman, a seal-cutter, you shall engrave the two stones with the names of the sons of Israel; you shall set them in gold rosettes, 12and fasten them on the shoulders of the ephod, as reminders of the sons of Israel. Aaron shall bear their names on his two shoulders as a reminder before the LORD.

13Make gold rosettes 14and two chains of pure gold worked into the form of ropes, and fix them on the rosettes.

The High-priest's breastplate. - Ex.39.8-21

15Make the breast-piece of judgement; it shall be made, like the ephod, by a seamster in gold, with violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely woven linen. 16It shall be a square folded, a span long and a span wide. 17Set in it four rows of precious stones: the first row, sardin, chrysolite and green felspar; 18the second row, purple garnet, lapis lazuli and jade; 19the third row, turquoise, agate and jasper; 20the fourth row, topaz, cornelian and green jasper, all set in gold rosettes. 21The stones shall correspond to the twelve sons of Israel name by name; each stone shall bear the name of one of the twelve tribes engraved as on a seal.

22Make for the breast-piece chains of pure gold worked into a rope. 23Make two gold rings, and fix them on the two upper corners of the breast-piece. 24Fasten the two gold ropes to the two rings at those corners of the breast-piece, 25and the other ends of the ropes to the two rosettes, thus binding the breast-piece to the shoulder-pieces on the front of the ephod. 26Make two gold rings and put them at the two lower corners of the breast-piece on the inner side next to the ephod. 27Make two gold rings and fix them on the two shoulder-pieces of the ephod, low down in front, along its seam above the waist-band of the ephod. 28Then the breast-piece shall be bound by its rings to the rings of the ephod with violet braid, just above the waist-band of the ephod, so that the breast-piece will not be detached from the ephod. 29Thus, when Aaron enters the Holy Place, he shall carry over his heart in the breast-piece of judgement the names of the sons of Israel, as a constant reminder before the LORD.

30Finally, put the Urim and the Thummim into the breast-piece of judgement, and they will be over Aaron's heart when he enters the presence of the LORD. So shall Aaron bear these symbols of judgement upon the sons of Israel over his heart constantly before the LORD.

Other priestly garments. - Ex.39.22-31

31Make the mantle of the ephod a single piece of violet stuff. 32There shall be a hole for the head in the middle of it. All round the hole there shall be a hem of woven work, with an oversewn edge, so that it cannot be torn. 33All round its skirts make pomegranates of violet, purple, and scarlet stuff, with golden bells between them, 34a golden bell and a pomegranate alternately the whole way round the skirts of the mantle. 35Aaron shall wear it when he ministers, and the sound of it shall be heard when he enters the Holy Place before the LORD and when he comes out; and so he shall not die.

36Make a rosette of pure gold and engrave on it as on a seal, 'Holy to the LORD' as ... LORD: or 'JEHOVAH' as on a seal in sacred characters. 37Fasten it on a violet braid and set it on the very front of the turban. 38It shall be on Aaron's forehead; he has to bear the blame for shortcomings in the rites with which the Israelites offer their sacred gifts, and the rosette shall be always on his forehead so that they may be acceptable to the LORD.

39Make the chequered tunic and the turban of fine linen, but the sash of embroidered work. 40For Aaron's sons make tunics and sashes; and make tall head-dresses to give them dignity and grandeur. 41With these invest your brother Aaron and his sons, anoint them, install them and consecrate them ; so shall they serve me as priests. 42Make for them linen drawers reaching to the thighs to cover their private parts; 43and Aaron and his sons shall wear them when they enter the Tent of the Presence or approach the altar to minister in the Holy Place. Thus they will not incur guilt and die. This is a rule binding on him and his descendants for all time.


  29. Aaronic priesthood - ordination. - Lv.8.1-36

1In consecrating them to be my priests this is the rite to be observed. Take a young bull and two rams without blemish. 2Take unleavened loaves, unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers smeared with oil, all made of wheaten flour; 3put them in a single basket and bring them in it. Bring also the bull and the two rams. 4Bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Tent of the Presence, and wash them with water. 5Take the vestments and invest Aaron with the tunic, the mantle of the ephod, the ephod itself and the breast-piece, and fasten the ephod to him with its waist-band. 6Set the turban on his head, and the symbol of holy dedication on the turban. 7Take the anointing oil, pour it on his head and anoint him. 8Then bring his sons forward, invest them with tunics, 9gird them with the sashes and tie their tall head-dresses on them. They shall hold the priesthood by a rule binding for all time.

Next you shall install Aaron and his sons. 10Bring the bull to the front of the Tent of the Presence, and they shall lay their hands on its head. 11Slaughter the bull before the LORD at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence. 12Take some of its blood, and put it with your finger on the horns of the altar. Pour all the rest of it at the base of the altar. 13Then take the fat covering the entrails, the long lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys with the fat upon them, and burn it on the altar; 14but the flesh of the bull, and its skin and offal, you shall destroy by fire outside the camp. It is a sin-offering.

15Take one of the rams, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on its head. 16Then slaughter it, take its blood and fling it against the sides of the altar. 17Cut the ram up; wash its entrails and its shins, lay them with the pieces and the head, 18and burn the whole ram on the altar: it is a whole- offering to the LORD; it is a soothing odour, a food-offering to the LORD.

19Take the second ram, and let Aaron and his sons lay their hands on its head. 20Then slaughter it, take some of its blood, and put it on the lobes of the right ears of Aaron and his sons, and on their right thumbs and big toes. Fling the rest of the blood against the sides of the altar. 21Take some of the blood which is on the altar and some of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it on Aaron and his vestments, and on his sons and their vestments. So shall he and his vestments, and his sons and their vestments become holy. 22Take the fat from the ram, the fat-tail, the fat covering the entrails, the long lobe of the liver, the two kidneys with the fat upon them, and the right leg: for it is a ram of installation. 23Take also one round loaf of bread, one cake cooked with oil, and one wafer from the basket of unleavened bread that is before the LORD. 24Set all these on the hands of Aaron and of his sons and present them as a special gift before the LORD. 25Then take them out of their hands, and burn them on the altar with the whole-offering for a soothing odour to the LORD: it is a food-offering to the LORD. 26Take the breast of Aaron's ram of installation, present it as a special gift before the LORD, and it shall be your perquisite.

27Hallow the breast of the special gift and the leg of the contribution, that which is presented and that which is set aside from the ram of installation, that which is for Aaron and that which is for his sons; 28and they shall belong to Aaron and his sons, by a rule binding for all time, as a gift from the Israelites, for it is a contribution, set aside from their shared-offerings, their contribution to the LORD.

29Aaron's sacred vestments shall be kept for the anointing and installation of his sons after him. 30The priest appointed in his stead from among his sons, the one who enters Or when he enters the Tent of the Presence to minister in the Holy Place, shall wear them for seven days.

31Take the ram of installation, and boil its flesh in a sacred place; 32Aaron and his sons shall eat the ram's fleshand the bread left in the basket, at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence. 33They shall eat the things with which expiation was made at their installation and their consecration. No unqualified person may eat them, for they are holy. 34If any of the fleshof the installation, or any of the bread, is left over till morning, you shall destroy it by fire; it shall not be eaten, for it is holy.

35Do this with Aaron and his sons as I have commanded you, spending seven days over their installation.

36Offer a bull daily, a sin-offering as expiation for sin; offer the sin-offering on the altar when you make expiation for it, and consecrate it by anointing. 37For seven days you shall make expiation for the altar, and consecrate it, and it shall be most holy. Whatever touches the altar shall be forfeit as sacred.

The daily offering. - Nu.28.1-8

38This is what you shall offer on the altar: two yearling rams regularly every day. 39You shall offer the one ram at dawn, and the second between dusk and dark, 40a tenth of an ephah of flour mixed with a quarter of a hin of pure oil of pounded olives, and a drink-offering of a quarter of a hin of wine for the first ram. 41You shall offer the second ram between dusk and dark, and with it the same grain-offering and drink-offering as at dawn, for a soothing odour: it is a food-offering to the LORD, 42a regular whole-offering in every generation; you shall make the offering at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence before the LORD, where I meet you and speak to you. 43I shall meet the Israelites there, and the place will be hallowed by my glory. 44I shall hallow the Tent of the Presence and the altar; and Aaron and his sons I shall consecrate to serve me as priests. 45I shall dwell in the midst of the Israelites, I shall become their God, 46and by my dwelling among them they will know that I am the LORD their God who brought them out of Egypt. I am the LORD their God.


  30. The Altar of Incense. - Ex.37.25-28

1Make an altar on which to burn incense; make it of acacia-wood. 2It shall be square, a cubit long by a cubit broad and two cubits high; the horns of one piece with it. 3Overlay it with pure gold, the top, the sides all round, and the horns; and put round it a band of gold. 4Make pairs of gold rings for it; put them under the band at the two corners on both sides to receive the poles by which it is to be carried. 5Make the poles of acacia-wood and overlay them with gold. 6Put it before the Veil in front of the Ark of the Tokens where I will meet you. 7On it Aaron shall burn fragrant incense; every morning when he tends the lamps he shall burn the incense, 8and when he mounts the lamps between dusk and dark, he shall burn the incense; so there shall be a regular burning of incense before the LORD for all time. 9You shall not offer on it any unauthorized incense, nor any whole-offering or grain-offering; and you shall not pour a drink-offering over it. 10Aaron shall make expiation with blood on its horns once a year; with blood from the sin-offering of the yearly Expiation Or Atonement he shall do this for all time. It is most holy to the LORD.

The tabernacle tax.

11The LORD spoke to Moses and said: 12When you number the Israelites for the purpose of registration, each man shall give a ransom for his life to the LORD, to avert plague among them during the registration. 13As each man crosses over to those already counted he shall give half a shekel by the sacred standard (twenty gerahs to the shekel) as a contribution to the LORD. 14Everyone from twenty years old and upwards who has crossed over to those already counted shall give a contribution to the LORD. 15The rich man shall give no more than the half-shekel, and the poor man shall give no less, when you give the contribution to the LORD to make expiation for your lives. 16The money received from the Israelites for expiation you shall apply to the service of the Tent of the Presence. The expiation for your lives shall be a reminder of the Israelites to the LORD.

The oblution basin.

17The LORD spoke to Moses and said: 18Make a bronze basin for ablution with its stand of bronze; put it between the Tent of the Presence and the altar, 19and fill it with water with which Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and feet. 20When they enter the Tent of the Presence they shall wash with water, lest they die. So also when they approach the altar to minister, to burn a food-offering to the LORD, 21they shall wash their hands and feet, lest they die. It shall be a rule for all time binding on him and his descendants in every generation.

The chrism oil.

22The LORD spoke to Moses and said: 23You yourself shall take spices as follows: five hundred shekels of sticks of myrrh, half that amount (two hundred and fifty shekels) of fragrant cinnamon, two hundred and fifty sheckels of aromatic cane, 24five hundred shekels of cassia by the sacred standard, and a hin of olive oil. 25From these prepare sacred anointing oil, a perfume compounded by the perfumer's art. This shall be the sacred anointing oil. 26Anoint with it the Tent of the Presence and the Ark of the Tokens, 27the table and all its vessels, the lamp-stand and its fittings, the altar of incense, 28the altar of whole-offering and all its vessels, the basin and its stand. 29You shall consecrate them, and they shall be most holy; whatever touches them shall be forfeit as sacred. 30Anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them to be my priests. 31Speak to the Israelites and say: This shall be the holy anointing oil for my service in every generation. 32It shall not be used for anointing the human body, and you must not prepare any oil like it after the same prescription. It is holy, and you shall treat it as holy. 33The man who compounds perfume like it, or who puts any of it on any unqualified person, shall be cut off from his father's kin.

Incense.

34The LORD said to Moses, Take fragrant spices: gum resin Or mastic, aromatic shell, galbanum; add pure frankincense to the spices in equal proportions. 35Make it into incense, perfume made by the perfumer's craft, salted and pure, a holy thing. 36Pound some of it into fine powder, and put it in front of the Tokens in the Tent of the Presence, where I shall meet you; you shall treat it as most holy. 37The incense prepared according to this prescription you shall not make for your own use. You shall treat it as holy to the LORD. 38The man who makes any like it for his own pleasure shall be cut off from his father's kin.


  31. The tabernacle craftsmen. - Ex.35.30-36.1

1THE LORD SPOKE T0 MOSES AND SAID, 2Mark this: I have specially chosen Bezalel son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. 3I have filled him with divine spirit, making him skilful and ingenious, expert in every craft, 4and a master of design, whether in gold, silver, copper, 5or cutting stones to be set, or carving wood, for workmanship of every kind. 6Further, I have appointed Aholiab Or Oholiab son of Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan to help him, and I have endowed every skilled craftsman with the skill which he has. They shall make everything that I have commanded you: 7the Tent of the Presence, the Ark for the Tokens, the cover over it, and all the furnishings of the tent; 8the table and its vessels, the pure lamp-stand and all its fittings, the altar of incense, 9the altar of whole-offering and all its vessels, the basin and its stand; 10the stitched vestments, that is the sacred vestments for Aaron the priest and the vestments for his sons when they minister as priests, 11the anointing oil and the fragrant incense for the Holy Place. They shall carry out all I have commanded you.

The Sabbath ordinance.

12The LORD spoke to Moses and said, 13Speak to the Israelites, you yourself, and say to them: Above all you shall observe my sabbaths, for the sabbath is a sign between me and you in every generation that you may know that I am the LORD who hallows you. 14You shall keep the sabbath, because it is a holy day for you. If anyone profanes it he must be put to death. Anyone who does work on it shall be cut off from his father's kin. 15Work may be done on six days, but on the seventh day there is a sabbath of sacred rest, holy to the LORD. Whoever does work on the sabbath day must be put to death. 16The Israelites shall keep the sabbath, they shall keep it in every generation as a covenant for ever. 17It is a sign for ever between me and the Israelites, for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, but on the seventh day he ceased work and refreshed himself.

18When he had finished speaking with Moses on Mount Sinai, the LORD gave him the two tablets of the Tokens, tablets of stone written with the finger of God.


  32. The golden bull-calf. - Dt.9.6-29

1WHEN THE PEOPLE SAW that Moses was so long in coming down from the mountain, they confronted Aaron and said to him, 'Come, make us gods to go ahead of us. As for this fellow Moses, who brought us up from Egypt, we do not know what has become of him.' 2Aaron answered them, 'Strip the gold rings from the ears of your wives and daughters, and bring them to me.' 3So all the people stripped themselves of their gold earrings and brought them to Aaron. 4He took them out of their hands, cast the metal in a mould, and made it into the image of a bull-calf. 'These', he said, 'are your gods, O Israel, that brought you up from Egypt.' 5Then Aaron was afraid and built an altar in front of it and issued this proclamation, 'Tomorrow there is to be a pilgrim-feast to the LORD.' 6Next day the people rose early, offered whole-offerings, and brought shared-offerings. After this they sat down to eat and drink and then gave themselves up to revelry. 7But the LORD said to Moses, 'Go down at once, for your people, the people you brought up from Egypt, have done a disgraceful thing; 8so quickly have they turned aside from the way I commanded them. They have made themselves an image of a bull-calf, they have prostrated themselves before it, sacrificed to it and said, "These are your gods, O Israel, that brought you up from Egypt." ' 9So the LORD said to Moses, 'I have considered this people, and I see that they are a stubborn people. 10Now, let me alone to vent my anger upon them, so that I may put an end to them and make a great nation spring from you.' 11But Moses set himself to placate the LORD his God: 'O LORD,' he said, 'why shouldst thou vent thy anger upon thy people, whom thou didst bring out of Egypt with great power and a strong hand? 12Why let the Egyptians say, "So he meant evil when he took them out, to kill them in the mountains and wipe them off the face of the earth"? Turn from thy anger, and think better of the evil thou dost intend against thy people. 13Remember Abraham, Isaac and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou didst swear by thy own self: "I will make your posterity countless as the stars in the sky, and all this land, of which I have spoken, I will give to them, and they shall possess it for ever." ' 14So the LORD relented, and spared his people the evil with which he had threatened them.

15Moses turned and went down the mountain with the two tablets of the Tokens in his hands, inscribed on both sides ; on the front and on the back they were inscribed. 16The tablets were the handiwork of God, and the writing was God's writing, engraved on the tablets. 17Joshua, hearing the uproar the people were making, said to Moses, 'Listen! There is fighting in the camp.' 18Moses replied,

19As he approached the camp, Moses saw the bull-calf and the dancing, and he was angry; he flung the tablets down, and they were shattered to pieces at the foot of the mountain. 20Then he took the calf they had made and burnt it; he ground it to powder, sprinkled it on water, and made the Israelites drink it. 21He demanded of Aaron, 'What did this people do to you that you should have brought such great guilt upon them?' 22Aaron replied, 'Do not be angry, sir. The people were deeply troubled; that you well know. 23And they said to me, "Make us gods to go ahead of us, because, as for this fellow Moses, who brought us up from Egypt, we do not know what has become of him." 24So I said to them, "Those of you who have any gold, strip it off." They gave it me, I threw it in the fire, and out came this bull-calf.' 25Moses saw that the people were out of control and that Aaron had laid them open to the secret malice of their enemies. 26He took his place at the gate of the camp and said, 'Who is on the LORD's side? Come here to me'; and the Levites all rallied to him. 27He said to them, 'These are the words of the LORD the God of Israel: "Arm yourselves, each of you, with his sword. Go through the camp from gate to gate and back again. Each of you kill his brother, his friend, his neighbour." ' 28The Levites obeyed, and about three thousand of the people died that day. 29Moses then said, 'Today you have consecrated yourselves to the LORD completely, because you have turned each against his own son and his own brother and so have this day brought a blessing upon yourselves.'

30The next day Moses said to the people, 'You have committed a great sin. I shall now go up to the LORD; perhaps I may be able to secure pardon for your sin.' 31So Moses returned to the LORD and said, 'O hear me! This people has committed a great sin: they have made themselves gods of gold. If thou wilt forgive them, forgive. 32But if not, blot out my name, I pray, from thy book which thou hast written.' 33The LORD answered Moses, 'It is the man who has sinned against me that I will blot out from my book. 34But go now, lead the people to the place which I have told you of. My angel shall go ahead of you, but a day will come when I shall punish them for their sin.' 35And the LORD smote the people for worshipping the bull-calf which Aaron had made.


  33. The prohibition of the wearing of jewellery.

1THE LORD SPOKE TO MOSES 'Come, go up from here, you and the people you have brought up from Egypt, to the land which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob that I would give to their posterity. 2I will send an angel ahead of you, and will drive out the Canaanites, the Amorites and the Hittites and the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites. 3I will bring you to a land flowing with milk and honey, but I will not journey in your company, for fear that I annihilate you on the way; for you are a stubborn people.' 4When the people heard this harsh sentence they went about like mourners, and no man put on his ornaments. 5The LORD said to Moses, 'Tell the Israelites, "You are a stubborn people: at any moment, if I journey in your company, I may annihilate you. Put away your ornaments now, and I will determine what to do to you." ' 6And so the Israelites stripped off their ornaments, and wore them no more from Mount Horeb onwards.

The tent of the Presence.

7Moses used to take a Or the tent and pitch it at a distance outside the camp. He called it the Tent of the Presence, and everyone who sought the LORD would go out to the Tent of the Presence outside the camp. 8Whenever Moses went out to the tent, all the people would rise and stand, each at the entrance to his tent, and follow Moses with their eyes until he entered the tent. 9When Moses entered it, the pillar of cloud came down, and stayed at the entrance to the tent while the LORD spoke with Moses. 10As soon as the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance to the tent, they would all prostrate themselves, every man at the entrance to his tent. 11The LORD would speak with Moses face to face, as one man speaks to another. Then Moses would return to the camp, but his young assistant, Joshua son of Nun, never moved from inside the tent.

12Moses said to the LORD, 'Thou bidst me lead this people up, but thou hast not told me whom thou wilt send with me. Thou hast said to me, "I know you by name, and, further, you have found favour with me." 13If I have indeed won thy favour, then teach me to know thy way, so that I can know thee and continue in favour with thee, for this nation is thy own people.' 14The LORD answered, 'I will go with you in person and set your mind at rest.' 15Moses said to him, 'Indeed if thou dost not go in person, do not send us up from here; 16for how can it ever be known that I and thy people have found favour with thee, except by thy going with us? So shall we be distinct, I and thy people, from all the peoples on earth.' 17The LORD said to Moses, 'I will do this thing that you have asked, because you have found favour with me, and I know you by name.'

18And Moses prayed, 'Show me thy glory.' 19The LORD answered, 'I will make all my goodness Or character pass before you, and I will pronounce in your hearing the Name JEHOVAH See note on 3.I5. I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.' 20But he added, 'My face you cannot see, for no mortal man may see me and live.' 21The LORD said, 'Here is a place beside me. Take your stand on the rock 22and when my glory passes by, I will put you in a crevice of the rock and cover you with my hand until I have passed by. 23Then I will take away my hand, and you shall see my back, but my face shall not be seen.'


  34. The second set of tablets of the Law. - Dt.10.1-5

1The LORD said to Moses, 'Cut two stone tablets like the first, and I will write on the tablets the words which were on the first tablets, which you broke in pieces. 2Be ready by morning. Then in the morning go up Mount Sinai; stand and wait for me there on the top. 3No man shall go up with you, no man shall even be seen anywhere on the mountain, nor shall flocks or herds graze within sight of that mountain.' 4So Moses cut two stone tablets like the first, and he rose early in the morning and went up Mount Sinai as the LORD had commanded him, taking the two stone tablets in his hands. 5And the LORD came down in the cloud and took his place beside him and pronounced the Name JEHOVAH. 6Then the LORD passed in front of him and called aloud, 'JEHOVAH, the LORD, a god compassionate and gracious, long-suffering, ever constant and true, 7maintaining constancy to thousands, forgiving iniquity, rebellion, and sin, and not sweeping the guilty clean away; but one who punishes sons and grandsons to the third and fourth generation for the iniquity of their fathers!' 8Moses made haste, bowed to the ground and prostrated himself. 9He said, 'If I have indeed won thy favour, O Lord, then may the Lord go in our company. However stubborn a people they are, forgive our iniquity and our sin and take us as thy own possession.'

The renewal of the Covenant. - Ex.23.14-19, Dt.7.1-5, Dt.16.1-17

10The LORD said, Here and now I make a covenant. In full view of all your people I will do such miracles as have never been performed in all the world or in any nation. All the surrounding peoples shall see the work of the LORD, for fearful is that which I will do for you for fearful ... for you: or (for he is to be feared) which I will do for you. 11Observe all I command you this day, and I for my part will drive out before you the Amorites and the Canaanites and the Hittites and the Perizzites and the Hivites and the Jebusites. 12Be careful not to make a covenant with the natives of the land against which you are going, or they will prove a snare in your midst. 13No: you shall demolish their altars, smash their sacred pillars and cut down their sacred poles. 14You shall not prostrate yourselves to any other god. For the LORD's name is the Jealous God, and a jealous god he is. 15Be careful not to make a covenant with the natives of the land, or, when they go wantonly after their gods and sacrifice to them, you may be invited, any one of you, to partake of their sacrifices, 16and marry your sons to their daughters, and when their daughters go wantonly after their gods, they may lead your sons astray too.

17You shall not make yourselves gods of cast metal.

18You shall observe the pilgrim-feast of Unleavened Bread: for seven days, as I have commanded you, you shall eat unleavened cakes at the appointed time, in the month of Abib, because in the month of Abib you went out from Egypt.

19Every first birth of the womb belongs to me, and the males of all your herds, both cattle and sheep. 20You may buy back the first birth of an ass by giving a sheep instead, but if you do not buy it, you must break its neck. You shall buy back all the first-born of your sons, and no one shall come into my presence empty-handed.

21For six days you shall work, but on the seventh day you shall cease work; even at ploughing time and harvest you shall cease work.

22You shall observe the pilgrim-feast of Weeks, the firstfruits of the wheat harvest, and the pilgrim-feast of Ingathering at the turn of the year. 23Three times a year all your males shall come into the presence of the Lord, the LORD the God of Israel; 24for after I have driven out the nations before you and extended your frontiers, there will be no danger from covetous neighbours when you go up these three times to enter the presence of the LORD your God.

25You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice at the same time as anything leavened, nor shall any portion of the victim of the pilgrim-feast of Passover remain overnight till morning.

26You shall bring the choicest firstfruits of your soil to the house of the LORD your God.

You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk.

27The LORD said to Moses, 'Write these words down, because the covenant I make with you and with Israel is in these words.' 28So Moses stayed there with the LORD forty days and forty nights, neither eating nor drinking, and wrote down the words of the covenant, the Ten Words Or Ten Commandments, on the tablets.

Moses comes down from Mount Sinai.

29At length Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the two stone tablets of the Tokens in his hands, and when he descended, he did not know that the skin of his face shone because he had been speaking with the LORD. 30When Aaron and the Israelites saw how the skin of Moses' face shone, they were afraid to approach him. 31He called out to them, and Aaron and all the chiefs in the congregation turned towards him. Moses spoke to them, 32and afterwards all the Israelites drew near. He gave them all the commands with which the LORD had charged him on Mount Sinai, 33and finished what he had to say.

Then Moses put a veil over his face, 34and whenever he went in before the LORD to speak with him, he removed the veil until he came out. Then he would go out and tell the Israelites all the commands he had received. 35Whenever the skin of Moses' face shone in the sight of the Israelites, he would put the veil back over his face until he went in again to speak with the LORD.


  35. Sabbath observance.

1MOSES CALLED THE WHOLE COMMUNITY of Israelites together and thus addressed them: These are the LORD's commands to you: 2On six days you may work, but the seventh you are to keep as a sabbath of sacred rest, holy to the LORD. Whoever works on that day shall be put to death. 3You are not even to light your fire at home on the sabbath day.

Offerings. - Ex.25.1-9

4These words Moses spoke to all the community of Israelites: This is the command the LORD has given: 5Each of you set aside a contribution to the LORD. Let all who wish, bring a contribution to the LORD: gold, silver, copper; 6violet, purple, and scarlet yarn; fine linen and goats' hair; 7tanned rams' skins, porpoise-hides, and acacia-wood; 8oil for the lamp, perfume for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense; 9cornelians and other stones ready for setting in the ephod and the breast-piece.

The tabernacle checklist. - Ex.39.32-43

10Let every craftsman among you come and make everything the LORD has commanded. 11The Tabernacle, its tent and covering, fasteners, planks, bars, posts, and sockets, 12the Ark and its poles, the cover and the Veil of the screen, 13the table, its poles, and all its vessels, and the Bread of the Presence, 14the lampstand for the light, its fittings, lamps and the lamp oil; 15the altar of incense and its poles, the anointing oil, the fragrant incense, and the screen for the entrance of the Tabernacle, 16the altar of whole-offering, its bronze grating, poles, and all appurtenances, the basin and its stand; 17the hangings of the court, its posts and sockets, and the screen for the gateway of the court; 18the pegs of the Tabernacle and court and their cords, 19the stitched vestments for ministering in the Holy Place, that is the sacred vestments for Aaron the priest and the vestments for his sons when they minister as priests.

The people bring their offerings.

20The whole community of the Israelites went out from Moses' presence, 21and everyone who was so minded brought of his own free will a contribution to the LORD for the making of the Tent of the Presence and all its service, and for the sacred vestments. 22Men and women alike came and freely brought clasps, earrings, finger-rings, and pendants, gold ornaments of every kind, every one of them presenting a special gift of gold to the LORD. 23And every man brought what he possessed of violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, fine linen and goats' hair, tanned rams' skins and porpoise-hides. 24Every man, setting aside a contribution of silver or copper, brought it as a contribution to the LORD, and all who had acacia-wood suitable for any part of the work brought it. 25Every woman with the skill spun and brought the violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, and fine linen. 26All the women whose skill moved them spun the goats' hair. 27The chiefs brought cornelians and other stones ready for setting in the ephod and the breast-piece, 28the perfume and oil for the light, for the anointing oil, and for the fragrant incense. 29Every Israelite man and woman who was minded to bring offerings to the LORD for all the work which he had commanded through Moses did so freely.

The Tabernacle craftsmen. - Ex.31.1-11

30Moses said to the Israelites, 'Mark this: the LORD has specially chosen Bezalel son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. 31He has filled him with divine spirit, making him skilful and ingenious, expert in every craft, 32and a master of design, whether in gold, silver, and copper, 33or cutting precious stones for setting, or carving wood, in every kind of design. 34He has inspired both him and Aholiab son of Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan to instruct 35workers and designers of every kind, engravers, seamsters, embroiderers in violet, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine linen, and weavers, fully endowing them with skill to execute all kinds of work.


  36.

1Bezalel and Aholiab shall work exactly as the LORD has commanded, and so also shall every craftsman whom the LORD has made skilful and ingenious in these matters, to know how to execute every kind of work for the service of the sanctuary.'

Too many gifts.

2Moses summoned Bezalel, Aholiab, and every craftsman to whom the LORD had given skill and who was willing, to come forward and set to work. 3They received from Moses every contribution which the Israelites had brought for the work of the service of the sanctuary, but the people still brought freewill offerings morning after morning, 4so that the craftsmen at work on the sanctuary left what they were doing, every one of them, and came to Moses 5and said, 'The people are bringing much more than we need for doing the work which the LORD has commanded.' 6So Moses sent word round the camp that no man or woman should prepare anything more as a contribution for the sanctuary. So the people stopped bringing gifts; 7what was there already was more than enough for all the work they had to do.

The making of the Tabernacle. - Ex.26.1-37

8Then all the craftsmen among the workers made the Tabernacle of ten hangings of finely woven linen, and violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, with cherubim worked on them, all made by a seamster. 9The length of each hanging was twenty-eight cubits and the breadth four cubits, all of the same size. 10They joined five of the hangings together, and similarly the other five. 11They made violet loops on the outer edge of the one set of hangings and they did the same for the outer edge of the other set of hangings. 12They made fifty loops for each hanging; they made also fifty loops for the end hanging in the second set, the loops being opposite each other. 13They made fifty gold fasteners, with which they joined the hangings one to another, and the Tabernacle became a single whole.

14They made hangings of goats' hair, eleven in all, to form a tent over the Tabernacle; 15each hanging was thirty cubits long and four cubits wide, all eleven of the same size. 16They joined five of the hangings together, and similarly the other six. 17They made fifty loops on the edge of the outer hanging in the first set and fifty loops on the joining edge of the second set, 18and fifty bronze fasteners to join up the tent and make it a single whole. 19They made for the tent a cover of tanned rams' skins and an outer covering of porpoise-hides.

20They made for the Tabernacle planks of acacia-wood as uprights, 21each plank ten cubits long and a cubit and a half wide, 22and two tenons for each plank joined to each other. They did the same for all the planks of the Tabernacle. 23They arranged the planks thus: twenty planks for the south side, facing southwards, 24with forty silver sockets under them, two sockets under each plank for its two tenons; 25and for the second or northern side of the Tabernacle twenty planks 26with forty silver sockets, two under each plank. 27They made six planks for the far end of the Tabernacle on the west. 28They made two planks for the corners of the Tabernacle at the far end; 29at the bottom they were alike, and at the top, both alike, they fitted into a single ring. They did the same for both of them at the two corners. 30There were eight planks with their silver sockets, sixteen sockets in all, two sockets under each plank.

31They made bars of acacia-wood: five for the planks on the one side of the Tabernacle, 32five bars for the planks on the second side of the Tabernacle, and five bars for the planks on the far end of the Tabernacle on the west. 33They made the middle bar to run along from end to end half-way up the frames. 34They overlaid the frames with gold, made rings of gold on them to hold the bars and plated the bars with gold.

35They made the Veil of finely woven linen and violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, with cherubim worked on it, all made by a seamster. 36And they made for it four posts of acacia-wood overlaid with gold, with gold hooks, and cast four silver sockets for them. 37For the entrance of the tent a screen of finely woven linen was made, embroidered with violet, purple, and scarlet, 38and five posts of acacia-wood with their hooks. They overlaid the tops of the posts and the bands round them with gold; the five sockets for them were of bronze.


  37. Making the Ark of the Covenant. - Ex.25.10-22

1Bezalel then made the Ark, a chest of acacia-wood, two and a half cubits long, one cubit and a half wide, and one cubit and a half high. 2He overlaid it with pure gold, both inside and out, and put a band of gold all round it. 3He cast four gold rings to be on its four feet, two rings on each side of it. 4He made poles of acacia-wood and plated them with gold, 5and inserted the poles in the rings at the sides of the Ark to lift it. 6He made a cover of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and one cubit and a half wide. 7He made two gold cherubim of beaten work at the ends of the cover, 8one at each end; he made each cherub of one piece with the cover. 9They had wings outspread and pointing upwards, screening the cover with their wings; they stood face to face, looking inwards over the cover.

Making the table for the showbread. - Ex.25.23-30

10He made the table of acacia-wood, two cubits long, one cubit wide, and one cubit and a half high. 11He overlaid it with pure gold and put a band of gold all round it. 12He made a rim round it a hand's breadth wide, and a gold band round the rim. 13He cast four gold rings for it, and put the rings at the four corners by the four legs. 14The rings, which were to receive the poles for carrying the table, were close to the rim. 15These carrying-poles he made of acacia-wood and plated them with gold. 16He made the vessels for the table, its dishes and saucers, and its flagons and bowls from which drink-offerings were to be poured; he made them of pure gold.

Making the lampstand. - Ex.25.31-40

17He made the lamp-stand of pure gold. The lamp-stand, stem, and branches, were of beaten work, its cups, both calyxes and petals, were of one piece with it. 18There were six branches springing from its sides, three branches of the lamp-stand sprang from one side and three branches from the other side. 19There were three cups shaped like almond blossoms, with calyx and petals, on the first branch, three cups shaped like almond blossoms, with calyx and petals, on the next branch, and similarly for all six branches springing from the lamp-stand. 20On the main stem of the lamp-stand there were four cups shaped like almond blossoms, with calyx and petals, 21and there were calyxes of one piece with it under the six branches which sprang from the lamp-stand, a single calyx under each pair of branches. 22The calyxes and the branches were of one piece with it, all a single piece of beaten work of pure gold. 23He made its seven lamps, its tongs and firepans of pure gold. 24The lamp-stand and all these fittings were made from one talent of pure gold.

Making the Altar of Incense. - Ex.30.1-5

25He made the altar of incense of acacia-wood, square, a cubit long by a cubit broad and two cubits high, the horns of one piece with it. 26He overlaid it with pure gold, the top, the sides all round, and the horns, and he put round it a band of gold. 27He made pairs of gold rings for it; he put them under the band at the two corners on both sides to receive the poles by which it was to be carried. 28He made the poles of acacia-wood and overlaid them with gold.

The Incense and the chrism. - Ex.30.22-38

29He prepared the sacred anointing oil and the fragrant incense, pure, compounded by the perfumer's art.


  38. Making the alter of burnt offerings. - Ex.27.1-8

1He made the altar of whole-offering of acacia-wood, square, five cubits long by five cubits broad and three cubits high. 2Its horns at the four corners were of one piece with it, and he overlaid it with bronze. 3He made all the vessels for the altar, its pots, shovels, tossing bowls, forks, and firepans, all of bronze. 4He made for the altar a grating of bronze network under the ledge, coming half-way up. 5He cast four rings for the four corners of the bronze grating to receive the poles, 6and he made the poles of acacia-wood and overlaid them with bronze. 7He inserted the poles in the rings at the sides of the altar to carry it. He left the altar a hollow shell.

Making the ablution basin. - Ex.30.18

8The basin and its stand of bronze he made out of the bronze mirrors of the women who were on duty at the entrance to the Tent of the Presence.

The Tabernacle enclosure. - Ex.27.9-19

9He made the court. For the south side facing southwards the hangings of the court were of finely woven linen a hundred cubits long, 10with twenty posts and twenty sockets of bronze; the hooks and bands on the posts were of silver. 11Along the north side there were hangings of a hundred cubits, with twenty posts and twenty sockets of bronze; the hooks and bands on the posts were of silver. 12On the west side there were hangings fifty cubits long, with ten posts and ten sockets; the hooks and bands on the posts were of silver. 13On the east side, towards the sunrise, fifty cubits, 14 (14-15) there were hangings on either side of the gateway of the court; they extended fifteen cubits to one corner, with their three posts and their three sockets, and fifteen cubits to the second corner, with their three posts and their three sockets. 15 16The hangings of the court all round were of finely woven linen. 17The sockets for the posts were of bronze, the hooks and bands on the posts of silver, the tops of them overlaid with silver, and all the posts of the court were bound with silver. 18The screen at the gateway of the court was of finely woven linen, embroidered with violet, purple, and scarlet, twenty cubits long and five cubits high to correspond to the hangings of the court, 19with four posts and four sockets of bronze, their hooks of silver, and the tops of them and their bands overlaid with silver. 20All the pegs for the Tabernacle and those for the court were of bronze.

The list of metals used.

21These were the appointments of the Tabernacle, that is the Tabernacle of the Tokens which was assigned by Moses to the charge of the Levites under Ithamar son of Aaron the priest. 22Bezalel son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah made everything the LORD had commanded Moses. 23He was assisted by Aholiab son of Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, a seamster, and an embroiderer in fine linen with violet, purple, and scarlet yarn.

24The gold of the special gift used for the work of the sanctuary amounted in all to twenty-nine talents seven hundred and thirty shekels, by the sacred standard. 25The silver contributed by the community when registered was one hundred talents one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels, by the sacred standard.

26This amounted to a beka a head, that is half a shekel by the sacred standard, for every man from twenty years old and upwards, who had been registered, a total of six hundred and three thousand five hundred and fifty men. 27The hundred talents of silver were for casting the sockets for the sanctuary and for the Veil, a hundred sockets to a hundred talents, a talent to a socket. 28With the one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels he made hooks for the posts, overlaid the tops of the posts and put bands round them. 29The bronze of the special gift came to seventy talents two thousand four hundred shekels, 30with this he made sockets for the entrance to the Tent of the Presence, the bronze altar and its bronze grating, all the vessels for the altar, 31the sockets all round the court, the sockets for the posts at the gateway of the court, all the pegs for the Tabernacle, and the pegs all round the court.


  39. Making the priestly garments. - Ex.28.1-14

1They used violet, purple, and scarlet yarn in making the stitched vestments for ministering in the sanctuary and in making the sacred vestments for Aaron, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

2They made the ephod of gold, with violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely woven linen. 3The gold was beaten into thin plates, cut and twisted into braid to be worked in by a seamster with the violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, and fine linen. 4They made shoulder-pieces for it, joined back and front. 5The waist-band on it was of the same workmanship and material as the fabric of the ephod; it was gold, with violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely woven linen, as the LORD commanded Moses.

6They prepared the cornelians, fixed in gold rosettes, engraved by the art of a seal-cutter with the names of the sons of Israel, 7and fastened them on the shoulders of the ephod as reminders of the sons of Israel, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

Making the breastplate. - Ex.28.15-30

8They made the breast-piece; it was worked like the ephod by a seamster, in gold, with violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely woven linen. 9They made the breast-piece square, folded, a span long and a span wide. 10They set in it four rows of precious stones: the first row, sardin, chrysolite and green felspar; 11the second row, purple garnet, lapis lazuli and jade; 12the third row, turquoise, agate and jasper; 13the fourth row, topaz, cornelian and green jasper, all set in gold rosettes. 14The stones corresponded to the twelve sons of Israel, name by name, each bearing the name of one of the twelve tribes engraved as on a seal. 15They made for the breast-piece twisted cords of pure gold worked into a rope. 16They made two gold rosettes and two gold rings, and they fixed the two rings on the two corners of the breast-piece. 17They fastened the two gold ropes to the two rings at those corners of the breast-piece, 18and the other ends of the two ropes to the two rosettes, thus binding them to the shoulder-pieces on the front of the ephod. 19They made two gold rings and put them at the two corners of the breast-piece on the inner side next to the ephod. 20They made two gold rings and fixed them on the two shoulder-pieces of the ephod, low down and in front, close to its seam above the waist-band on the ephod. 21They bound the breast-piece by its rings to the rings of the ephod with a violet braid, just above the waist-band on the ephod, so that the breast-piece would not become detached from the ephod; so the LORD had commanded Moses.

Making the other priestly garments. - Ex.28.31-43

22They made the mantle of the ephod a single piece of woven violet stuff, 23with a hole in the middle of it which had a hem round it, with an oversewn edge so that it could not be torn. 24All round its skirts they made pomegranates of violet, purple, and scarlet stuff, and finely woven linen. 25They made bells of pure gold and put them all round the skirts of the mantle between the pomegranates, 26a bell and a pomegranate alternately the whole way round the skirts of the mantle, to be worn when ministering, as the LORD commanded Moses.

27They made the tunics of fine linen, woven work, for Aaron and his sons, 28the turban of fine linen, the tall head-dresses and their bands all of fine linen, the drawers of finely woven linen, 29and the sash of finely woven linen, embroidered in violet, purple, and scarlet, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

30They made a rosette of pure gold as the symbol of their holy dedication and inscribed on it as the engraving on a seal, 'Holy to the LORD' on it ... LORD: or 'JEHOVAH' on it in sacred characters as engraved on a seal, 31and they fastened on it a violet braid to fix it on the turban at the top, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

The completion of the work. - Ex.35.10-19

32Thus all the Work of the Tabernacle of the Tent of the Presence was completed, and the Israelites did everything exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses. 33They brought the Tabernacle to Moses, the tent and all its furnishings, its fasteners, planks, bars, posts and sockets, 34the covering of tanned rams' skins and the outer covering of porpoise-hides, the Veil of the screen, 35the Ark of the Tokens and its poles, the cover, 36the table and its vessels, and the Bread of the Presence, 37the pure lamp-stand with its lamps in a row and all its fittings, and the lamp oil, 38the gold altar, the anointing oil, the fragrant incense, and the screen at the entrance of the tent, 39the bronze altar, the bronze grating attached to it, its poles and all its furnishings, the basin and its stand, 40the hangings of the court, its posts and sockets, the screen for the gateway of the court, its cords and pegs, and all the equipment for the service of the Tabernacle for the Tent of the Presence, 41the stitched vestments for ministering in the sanctuary, that is the sacred vestments for Aaron the priest and the vestments for his sons when they minister as priests. As the LORD had commanded Moses, 42so the Israelites carried out the whole work. 43Moses inspected all the work, and saw that they had carried it out according to the command of the LORD; and he blessed them.


  40. Dedication of the Tabernacle.

1THE LORD SPOKE T0 MOSES AND SAID: 2On the first day of the first month you shall set up the Tabernacle, the Tent of the Presence. 3You shall put the Ark of the Tokens in it and screen the Ark with the Veil. 4You shall bring in the table and lay it; then you shall bring in the lamp-stand and mount its lamps. 5You shall then set the gold altar of incense in front of the Ark of the Tokens and put the screen of the entrance of the Tabernacle in place. 6You shall put the altar of whole-offering in front of the entrance of the Tabernacle, the Tent of the Presence. 7You shall put the basin between the Tent of the Presence and the altar and put water in it. 8You shall set up the court all round and put in place the screen of the gateway of the court. 9You shall take the anointing oil and anoint the Tabernacle and everything in it; thus you shall consecrate it and all its furnishings, and it shall be holy. 10You shall anoint the altar of whole-offering and all its vessels; thus shall you consecrate it, and it shall be most holy. 11You shall anoint the basin and its stand and consecrate it. 12You shall bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Tent of the Presence and wash them with the water. 13Then you shall clothe Aaron with the sacred vestments, anoint him and consecrate him; so shall he be my priest. 14You shall then bring forward his sons, clothe them in tunics, 15anoint them as you anointed their father, and they shall be my priests. Their anointing shall inaugurate a hereditary priesthood for all time.

16Exactly as the LORD had commanded him, so Moses did. 17In the first month of the second year, on the first day of that month, the Tabernacle was set up.

18Moses set up the Tabernacle. He put the sockets in place, inserted the planks, fixed the crossbars and set up the posts. 19He spread the tent over the Tabernacle and fixed the covering of the tent above it, as the LORD had commanded him. 20He took the Tokens and put them in the Ark, inserted the poles in the Ark, and put the cover over the top of the Ark. 21He brought the Ark into the Tabernacle, set up the Veil of the screen and so screened the Ark of the Tokens, as the LORD had commanded him. 22He put the table in the Tent of the Presence on the north side of the Tabernacle outside the Veil 23and arranged bread on it before the LORD, as the LORD had commanded him. 24He set the lamp-stand in the Tent of the Presence opposite the table at the south side of the Tabernacle 25and mounted the lamps before the LORD, as the LORD had commanded him. 26He set up the gold altar in the Tent of the Presence in front of the Veil 27and burnt fragrant incense on it, as the LORD had commanded him. 28He set up the screen at the entrance of the Tabernacle, 29fixed the altar of whole-offering at the entrance of the Tabernacle, the Tent of the Presence, and offered on it whole-offerings and grain-offerings, as the LORD had commanded him.

30He set up the basin between the Tent of the Presence and the altar and put water there for Washing, 31and Moses and Aaron and his sons used to wash their hands and feet 32when they entered the Tent of the Presence or approached the altar, as the LORD had commanded Moses. 33He set up the court all round the Tabernacle and the altar, and put a screen at the gateway of the court.

The Shekinah. - Nu.9.15-23

34(33b) Thus Moses completed the work, (34) and the cloud covered the Tent of the Presence, and the glory of the LORD filled the Tabernacle. 35Moses was unable to enter the Tent of the Presence, because the cloud had settled on it and the glory of the LORD filled the Tabernacle. 36At every stage of their journey, when the cloud lifted from the Tabernacle, the Israelites broke camp; 37but if the cloud did not lift from the Tabernacle, they did not break camp until the day it lifted. 38For the cloud of the LORD hovered over the Tabernacle by day, and there was fire in the cloud by night, and the Israelites could see it at every stage of their journey.


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The katapi New Study Bible reference section has been incorporated into the page as follows: Links to parallel passages show below passage headings. Links to Old Testament quotations in New Testament verses show after the verse number.
Quotations of OT passages by NT authors can in most cases be viewed within their context of the OT passage as a whole, with the quoted text displayed, against a subdued background.
Any mismatches, truncated verses, other mistakes ? Please e-mail me. © this page layout: Paul Ingram 2012.