katapi bible resource pages: header page.
katapi bible resource pages
home library atlas chronology music
Bible & Spade. Contents. BIBLE AND SPADE - BY STEPHEN L CAIGER D B - first published at the University Press, Oxford 1936. This Edition prepared for katapi by Paul Ingram 2003.

PREFACE

HOME | Preface | Contents | Abbreviations | Introduction

the aim of this little book is very simple:
it is to give a general survey, as complete and up to date as possible within the prescribed limits, of the main discoveries of archaeology as far as they concern the Old Testament, especially on its historical side. 

Where opinion differs about the weight or significance of the evidence, I have tried to give what I believe to be the general consensus of responsible scholarship, rather than to press any particular point of view. 

In the hope that readers may be stimulated to further study of this fascinating subject, the sources from which information may be obtained are indicated somewhat fully, for recent arrangements made by the National Lending Library now make these sources accessible to all.

S. L. C.
WIRKSWORTH, 1935.

Contents

    PART I ANCIENT TRADITIONS

  1. HEBREW WRITING AND LANGUAGE
  2. THE EARLY CHAPTERS OF GENESIS
  3. PART II. THE PRE-HISTORY OF THE HEBREWS

  4. ABRAHAM
  5. CANAAN IN THE PATRIARCHAL AGE
  6. THE SOJOURN IN EGYPT
  7. THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT
  8. THE LAW OF MOSES
  9. THE HEBREW CONQUEST
  10. THE SETTLEMENT IN CANAAN
  11. PART III. THE MONARCHY AND AFTER

  12. THE EARLY MONARCHY
  13. THE HOUSE OF OMRI
  14. THE ASSYRIAN ADVANCE
  15. SENNACHERIB'S INVASION
  16. THE LAST DAYS OF THE MONARCHY
  17. THE EXILE AND AFTER

ABBREVIATIONS & TECHNICAL TERMS

Very few of these are used in this volume, but the following may be permitted for convenience:

Century A hundred years; e.g. 'the ninth century BC.' signifies 899-850-800 BC.
Millennium A thousand years; e.g. 'the second millennium BC.' covers 1999-1500-1000 BC.
Pentateuch The first five Books of the Old Testament traditionally called 'The Books of Moses' or 'The Law', i.e. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy.
J, E, D, P In the Biblical references, e.g. (Gen. 1 P), (Gen. 2 J), &c., indicate the original documentary source of the Pentateuch to which the passage in question is ascribed by the critics, thus giving a criterion of its weight as evidence.
J The 'Jehovistic Source'.
E The 'Elohistic Source'.
  These two sources are the earliest, generally dated as eighth or ninth century BC.
D The 'Deuteronomic Reviser', dated in the seventh century.
P The late 'Priestly Editor', dating from the Exile (sixth and following centuries).
  For further information see the various 'Introductions to the Old Testament'.
LXX Septuagint, that is, the famous translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek made by the Jews of Alexan­dria in the third century BC, thus giving a clue to a very early Hebrew text of the Scriptures.
P.B.A.S. Proceedings of the Biblical Archaeological Society.
J.P.O.S. Journal of the Palestine and Oriental Society.
J.E.A.S. Journal of the Egyptian Archaeological Society.
W.O.P. Wonders of the Past (edited by J. A. Hammerton. Amal­gamated Press. 1934).

INTRODUCTION

By Dr. A. W. F. blunt, Bishop of Bradford  

THIS book supplies a real need. Some of the more famous archaeological finds, such as the Moabite Stone or the Taylor Cylinder, have been familiar to readers of modern Biblical his­tories: and students know where to look for information about others such as the Amarna Tablets or the Stele of Merenptah. But there was no single manual covering the field of Biblical archaeology in such a way as to be of help to the general student or to those who had to teach Scripture in schools.

Moreover, it is unfortunate that the recent discoveries in Palestine, which have shed so interesting a light on the earlier history of the Hebrew invasion, have at times been misused in the interests of an unscholarly prejudice against the work of those who are vaguely called 'the higher critics', or even 'the so-called higher critics': and we have been treated to such statements as that 'archaeology has disproved the higher criticism'.

It is a serious mistake thus to set archaeology and criticism against one another. Both are needed as helps to understand the Bible story. Without higher criticism, Old Testament history would still be largely a chaos: criticism has introduced order and development into the story. Archaeology does not disprove criticism: it only contributes additional data for the problems which criticism has to solve; and the finds of the excavator have to be set side by side with the literary evidence of the Bible itself, in order to obtain what every student, critic, or archaeologist desires, a trustworthy account of the way in which the history and religious growth of the Hebrews prepared for the coming of Christ.

In this book Mr. Caiger, without any cheap disparagement of the great work done by criticism, has given, in popular form, a synopsis of Biblical archaeology which ought to be of real service to clergy, teachers of Scripture, and general students; and as such I am glad to be allowed to commend it.

In one important particular, viz. the early date for the Exodus, I am convinced that the case is a strong one. I have always felt that the archaeological indications were in its favour, and that the Biblical evidence that suggested a later date, was of questionable force. In opting for the early date Mr. Caiger is abreast of what seems to be the rising tide of opinion among historians.

ALFRED BRADFORD
HOBTON HALL BRADFORD

Top