Council of Ephesus - 431ce

A fresco in the church of St Sozomenos, Galata, Cyprus by Symeon Axenti (1513) showing the emperor excommunicating Nestorius and another heretic.

The Council was opened at Ephesus on May 22, 431. 
Celestine of Rome was not present, but his representatives, or "legates", were instructed to follow in all things the directions of Cyril, who was accompanied by fifty Egyptian bishops and who presided at the Council.
John of Antioch and his bishops were late, and Cyril refused to wait for them.
Nestorius would not appear until all the bishops were assembled. 
In his absence, the correspondence between him and Cyril and extracts from his sermons were read. 
The Council agreed unanimously to condemn Nestorius and to proclaim that the title Theotkos must be given to the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Image: "Atlas of the Christian Church" edited by Henry Chadwick and G R Evans. Guild Publishing. Copyright Equinox (Oxford) Ltd 1987.
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